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Eagle, (fr. Aigle): the eagle being the recognized king of birds, it is natural that it should from a favourite device. With the Romans, it will be remembered, it was adopted as their ensign, no doubt as symbolical of the courage and power attributed to that bird. It is found very frequently in the earlier rolls of arms, and is very common throughout the Middle Ages. In the roll, for instance, of the time of Edward II., to which reference has already been made, over forty coats of arms bear eagles. In that, however, of Henry III. there are only two or three, and in that of Edward III. not so large a number in proportion. From the following selection it will be observed that amongst the earliest examples the beak and claws are blazoned of a different tincture from that of the body; and in Edward the Second’s reign we find the double-headed eagle, and in Edward the Third’s reign we get the term espanie, signifying displayed, or spread out; (conf. modern fr. épandre). The mention, too, of the eagles being tinctured barry implies rather that they were represented displayed, even where not so described.
John de BEAUCHAMP, noir ung egle d’argent, beke et les pees d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Dru de BARANTINE, noir a trois egles d’or–Ibid. Sir Johan de CASTRE, de sable a un egle barre de argent e de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire William de GRAUNSON, pale de argent e de azure a une bende de goules e iij egles de or–Ibid. Sire John PLUET, de or et un egle de goules a ij testes–Ibid. Monsire Edward de MONTHERMER, port d’or une egle espanie de vert beke et pedes gules–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de WANTY, port d’argenta une egle espanie d’asur beke et peds gules–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de SIGESTON, port d’argent a une egle espanie de sable a double teste beke et pedes de gules–Ibid. Monsire John CHANSCYRE, port d’azur a un egle barre di sis peeces d’argent et gules–Ibid.
Eagle Displayed. Wings elevated.
Eagle Displayed. Wings inverted. In later arms also, an eagle is more frequently rendered displayed(mod. fr. eployé). and it may be drawn in two different ways. The first figure shews an eagle with its wings elevated, which is what is generally intended by the phrase ‘an eagle displayed,’ and the second with its wings inverted. The difference appears, however, to be an accidental one. The term expanded is also found sometimes used, which implies, perhaps, that the wings are displayed more than usual. Unless otherwise appointed, the eagle is to be drawn with the head looking towards the dexter.
Or, an eagle displayed vert, armed sable–MONTHERMER. Or, an eagle displayed gules, armed azure–PEVENSEY. Or, an eagle displayed wings downwards sable–FREDERICK II., Emperor of Germany, and EDMUND, E. of Cornwall, son of Richard, the king of the Romans. Azure, an eagle displayed wings downwards argent, crowned or–(Part of the arms of) DIEPHOLZ. Argent, an eagle displayed reguardant sable armed or–BOKELAND. Argent, an eagle wings expanded sable, armed or–HILTOFTE. Azure, an eagle reguardant, wings expanded or armed gules–CANVILL.
But there are various terms which, though not confined to the eagle, are more frequently applied to it than to other birds, namely, as regards its wings, and the several positions in which it is represented. It may be with wings close, i.e. closed, or it may be with its wings elevated, or it may be with wings disclosed, i.e. somewhat open, but inverted, and pointing downwards(and this is practically the same as the expression overt, written sometimes overture).
Sable, an eagle close or–ROPER, Derby. Sable, a chevron ermine between three eagles close argent–GAMES, Leicester, granted 1614. Sable a chevron between three eagles close argent–JERVOISE. Azure, an eagle with wings elevated argent–COTON, Ashill, Norfolk. Argent, a bendlet(or baston) sable, between in chief an eagle rising overt vert, and in base a cross crosslet of the second–RICSWORTH.
If it is recursant, it means the head is turned back towards the sinister, the term reguardant being used for the same. If in full aspect, it is facing the spectator; if in trian aspect, something between that and facing towards the dexter.
Or, a bendlet(or baston) gules between three eagles close in trian aspect sable–Robert WILTRAM, co. York. Azure, an eagle reguardant to the sinister, rising wings overt and inverted or, breaked gules–Richard CANVILL.
Again, an eagle may be rising, that is, about to fly; volant, that is, flying; or eyrant, that is, sitting, as it were, on its nest; or it may be statant, i.e. standing in an ordinary position; and if so, generally perched upon some branch or other object, or holding something in its mouth; or it may be represented as preyant; or, again, pruning its wings. These are a few for which examples are readily found; but to judge of the varieties which might be adopted, the reader is referred to those noted under Bird, and to the article Wings.
Argent, an eagle recursant wings overture sable–BACK. Argent, an eagle rising, wings overt inverted gules, standing on a baston raguly in bend vert–William PORTER. Sable, an eagle volant argent–STAYLTON or STALTON. Gules, an eagle ayrant or–BARDOLPH, Norfolk. Azure, an eagle eyrant or, armed gules–BYGBERY, Devon. Per pale or and argent, an eagle displayed perched on a ragged staff sable–PYNELL. Azure, an eagle with wings endorsed standing on a branch of laurel all or–Priory of Austin Canons at CAERMARTHEN. Quarterly, gules and vert, an eagle displayed holding in the beak a slip of oak proper–GREAVES. Argent, an eagle preyant sable, upon a child swaddled gules–CULCHETH. Azure, an eagle pouncing on a hare courant or–DENSKINE, Scotland. Or, an eagle displayed pruning its wings azure, armed gules–ROUS, co. Devon, and HALTON, co. Cornwall.
Again, Eagles, whether in any of the positions above named, or displayed, may have their beaks, talons, or legs of a different tincture from that of the body. Of the talons the term armed in most frequently used, though unguled(fr. onglé) is sometimes used; of the legs, membered(fr. membré); of the beak, beaked(fr. becqué.) It is not unusual, too, to find an eagle crowned, or having a collar.
Argent, an eagle displayed sable, armed purple–EAGLESTON. Or, three bars azure, over all an eagle displayed gules, beaked and armed or–JERNEGAN, Fitz-Hugh. Argent, an eagle displayed sable, armed and langued gules–BRUYNE, Harl. MS. 1603. Argent, an eagle displayed sable crowned or–ESTE. Azure, an eagle displayed argent armed or, collared with a ducal coronet gules–WILCOCKS. Or, an eagle displayed azure, holding in the dexter talon a rose slipped in pale proper–CARNEGIE.
When three or more eagles occur in the same shield they are generally represented displayed, though occasionally they are found blazoned otherwise. If they are more than three they are generally blazoned as eaglets.
EGLESFIELD. Argent, three eagles displayed gules, armed or–Robert de EGLESFIELD, [Founder of Queen’s College, Oxford, and borne by the college]. Vert, three eagles displayed in fesse, within a bordure or–WILLIAMS, London. Argent fretty and four eagles displayed gules–Priory of Austin Canons at MARTON, Yorkshire. Sable, five eagles displayed in saltire argent–ROGER, Abp. of York, 1154-81. [Similar arms(excepting the tinctures) are also ascribed to Roger, Bp. of Salisbury, 1107-39, and to Alexander, Bp. of Lincoln, 1123-47.] Azure, seme of eagles displayed or–FITZSYMON, Hertfordshire. Vert, three eagles statant, wings displayed argent collared or–SMITHERMAN.
German Empire. The double-headed eagle was borne by the German emperors(who claimed to be considered the successors of the Cæsars of Rome), and hence the term frequently applied to it is imperial eagle. The wings of the imperial eagle are always drawn by German heralds with a small feather between each pair of large ones. An eagle is also borne by the emperor or czar(that is Cæsar) of Russia. In the Bulle d’or of Charles IV. (A.D. 1323) the eagle is there represented with but one head, and it is not until Sigismund has son began his reign that we find the eagle represented double headed. The eagles in the arms of many English families can be traced to some former connection between those families and the German empire. The Eagle of France dates from Napoleon Bonaparte.
MILLINGTON. Or, an eagle with two heads displayed sable–GERMAN EMPIRE. Argent, an eagle displayed double-headed sable–ATHESON, Scotland; BOWCEGAULT, Brin, co. Chester; BROWNE, Ireland, &c. Or, an eagle displayed with two necks sable–MILLINGTON.
One monstrosity may be mentioned, viz. Eagles’ heads with hounds’ ears.
Or, an eagle’s head with hound’s ears azure–AERBOROUGH.
Eagles occur sometimes as supporters; e.g. two Eagles are the supporters to the Arms of CLARKE of Courie Castle, co. Perth. Eagles’ wings are also borne by themselves; also the legs, which are frequently blazoned as erased a-la-quise, q.v.
Sire Wauter le BAUD, de goules a iij eles[i.e. ailes] de egles de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. Azure, three eagle’s legs couped argent–GAMBON. Gules, three eagle’s legs erased, talons in chief or–BAWDE, Essex.
Eaglets, (fr. aiglettes and aiglons): the diminutive of Eagle, and the term is more properly used when two or more appear upon the same coat of arms. They may have all the attributes of Eagles. [See also Allerion.]
Or, six eaglets displayed, three two and one proper–BAXTER.
Ear: the ear is seldom borne separately, but it is not uncommon in some animals, e.g. dogs, to find the ears blazoned of another tincture.
Argent, three hind’s ears gules–AUDICE.
Earl: the third order in the British Peerage, corresponding with the French Comte, and the German Graf. The name is of Saxon origin, an eonl having been in the early history of this country the governor of a shire. The first hereditary earl in England is said to have been Hugh of Avranches, surnamed Lupus, to whom William the Conqueror gave the county palatine of Chester. Earn: a hawk(Nisbet). Ears of wheat, barley, rye, &c. See under Wheat; (2.) Of beasts, the ears are sometimes of a different tincture. Earth. See Colour. Ebranché, (fr.): of a tree of which the branches have been lopped. Ecaillé, (fr.): of fish having scales when of another tincture. Ecartelé, (fr.): quarterly and ecartelé, en sautoir=per saltire. Echalas=Vine-stick. Echelle, (fr.): a ladder. Echiqueté, (fr.): chequy. Ecimé, (fr.): of a tree which has had its top cut off. Eclaté, (fr.): broken, applied by French heralds to a lance. Eclipse. See Sun. Eclopé: used by French heralds to describe a charged couped by a line of partition. Ecorché, (fr.): of animals flayed, either in part or wholly. Ecoté, (fr.): of a trunk of a tree, of which the branches have been lopped. Ecrevisse, (fr.): Crab(not crayfish). Ecrevisse de gueules is sometimes blazoned by French heralds, écrevisse cuite. Ecureuil, (fr.): Squirrel. Ecusson, (fr.): Escutcheon. Ecuyer, (fr.): title of Esquire. Edged: See under Fimbriated. Edock leaf. See Dock. Eel-pot. See Weel, or fish-basket. Eels. These are not very common on English Arms, and generally adopted, as will be observed by the examples, on account of the name. Neither the anguille or the congre have been observed on French arms. Eels may be represented naiant and hauriant, terms usually applied to fish; also nowed, a term which is applied to snakes, and embowed, which is applied to dolphins. The small eels are termed grigs.
ELLIS. Argent, three eels in pale, naiant barwise sable–Antony ELLIS, Bp. of S.David’s, 1752-61. Argent, three eels naiant in pale sable–ELLIS, Cornwall. Argent, three eels embowed in pale sable–EALES. Five arrows or entwined by an eel–Crest of family of ELWES, Suffolk. A hand gauntletted grasping an eel–Crest of family of ELLEIS, Southside, Scotland, and of ELLICE, Clothall, Hertfordshire. Argent, two eels hauriant confronty vert between two etoiles gules–ARNEEL, Scotland. Azure, a saltier between four eels naiant or–FLEURY, Ireland. Argent, three eels naiant in pale azure–DUCAT, Scotland. Gules, a chevron between three grigs with tails in their mouths argent–GRIGG. Gules, an eel nowed argent–MATHILLY.
KING’S LYNN. The Conger eel, a large eel found upon the British coasts, is as frequently adopted as the eels of the rivers. The head is perhaps more frequently found in heraldry than the whole fish, and also demi-congers.
Argent, upon a pale sable, a conger’s head couped and erected or–GASCOIGNE, Bedford. Azure, three congers hauriant[also blazoned erased] or–CONGHURST. Ermine, on a bend engrailed sable three conger-eel’s heads erased argent, collared with a bar gemel gules–CLARKE, Ipswich. Sable, three conger’s heads erased and erect argent–HOTOFF, Notts. Argent, a chevron between three conger’s heads erased–CANBROOK. A tun floating on waves between two congers respecting each other, and upon the tun a lion statant–Town Seal of CONGLETON. Gules, on a fesse argent between three congers[or sea-dragons’ heads] erased or as many trefoils slipped sable–CONGLETON, Northamptonshire. Azure, three conger-eel’s heads erased and erect or; in the mouth of each a cross crosslet fitchée of the last–Town of KING’S LYNN, Norfolk. Argent, a chevron between three demi-congers naiant gules–SHAMBROKE.
At the same time, it should be noted that there seems to be often a confusion between lucies’ heads and eels’ heads, from the similarity of drawing.
Eel-spears. Eel-spear: a kind of fork(fig. 1) used in taking eels; is represented on one or two coats of arms, while a charge in the bearings of the company of SOAPMAKERS, called an eel-spear, is represented as in the second figure. With the eel-spear may be associated the Harpoon, Harping-iron, or Salmon-spear, represented as in figs. 3 and 4. The ordinary position of the charge is with the points downwards.
Sable, a chevron between three eel-spears, points downwards, argent–STRATELE, or STRATLEY. Argent, three eelpicks sable–WORTHINGTON, Lancashire. Azure, a dolphin naiant between three eel-spears or–Company of SOAPMAKERS(Inc. 1638.) Argent, three harpoons sable[otherwise blazoned as Argent, three salmon-spears, point downwards, sable]–GLYNN, Cornwall.
Effaré, (fr.): same as Effrayé. Effarouché, (fr.): of a cat when scared. Effets: these in heraldic drawing are perhaps hardly to be distinguished from lizards, and hence the same arms are sometimes variously blazoned. The asker, which is a water-lizard, and the newt, are also found.
Azure, three effets in pale proper–COTTER, Ireland. Azure, three asker’s heads couped or–ALSACHER, Chester. Azure, an asker’s head erased or–ALSARIN. Or, a newt vert, in chief a lion rampant gules, all within a bordure of the last–SUTTON.
Effrayé, (fr.): applied to a horse when rearing. Egret. See Heron. Egyptian’s head. See Head. Eight-foil. See Foil. Elancé, (fr.): of a stag at full speed. Elbows: sometimes mentioned in describing portions of the arm. Elder-leaves appear in one coat of arms on account of the name, but neither the elder-tree nor the elder-berry seem to occur unless the alder berry, q.v., is intended for the latter.
Argent, a fesse wreathed of five pieces gules and vert; in chief two elder-leaves of the third, and a crescent in base azure–ELDERSHAW, Scotland.
Elephant. (fr. éléphant): occurs in a few insignia of cities, and in the arms of some families. The trunks or probosces(fr. proboscides) occur separate in some few cases. The tusk in French blazon is called the defense, and tusked is described as defendu of such a tincture. In one example the elephant is represented carrying a howdah, and in two examples a castle. Elephants sometimes appear as supporters, e.g. to the arms of OLIPHANT of Gask, co. Perth, and to the city of OXFORD, &c. They are not unfrequently used as crests.
Argent, an elephant statant, and carrying a howdah containing three persons with a driver proper; a bordure or–The Rajah KALEE KRISHNA Bahadin, [granted in India, Ap. 3, 1833]. Per pale gules and vert, an elephant, on his back a tower triple towered all or–City of COVENTRY. Or, an elephant azure, on his back a quadrangular castle argent, masoned proper; on the sinister tower a flag-staff and banner gules, on the dexter corner of the banner a canton argent charged with a cross gules; on the dexter corner of the escutcheon a canton quarterly of France and England–Royal AFRICAN Company, [Inc. 1662]. Gules, a chevron or between three elephant’s heads erased proper–HUSKISSON, Sussex. Argent, two elephant’s trunks reflexed endorsed gobony or and gules, fixed upon a hairy scalp with two ears sable–BOSIN. Ermine, on a pale vert between two daggers, points downwards, azure hilted or, three elephant’s probosces of the last–HUTCHINS. Also borne in the insignia of the Burgh of DUMBARTON, and by the families of SUTCLIFFE, BUTTON, and ELPHINSTONE; and the heads of elephants by the families of JEWE, SANDERS, FOUNTAINE, PRATT, SUCKLING, BRODRICK, &c.
Elevated: when applied to wings signifies that the points are upward. Elm-tree: this tree is found, and the leaves also, the latter rather frequently.
Per fesse azure and argent, a fesse counter embattled or; in chief a mullet of six points of the second; in base on a mount vert an elm tree proper–OLMIUS, London. Ermine, on two bars sable six elm leaves or, three and three–ELMES, Lincolnshire. Sable, three bars engrailed between ten elm leaves erect or–ELMSALL, Yorkshire. The leaves are also borne by the families of WALLER, Devon; FOLLIFORD, Suffolk; MURVESSE, Suffolk; ELLAMES, and several branches of the family of ELMES.
Email, (fr.): tincture(pl. emaux).
BRUYSEL DE SURE. Emanche, (fr.): a term about which English heralds seem to differ. It is, however, confined to French and German heraldry, and appears to be a piece partitioned off from the shield by a dancetty line, but often so much exaggerated as to be like two or three piles; they may be upright or fesswise; the indentations appear not to be always drawn uniform. The adjectival form emanché is perhaps more common than the substantive, an emanche. When there is only one projection the term embrassé seems to be employed by French heralds.
Emanché d’or et d’azure de trois piecès, à trois besants d’or en pointe; au chef d’argent chargé de trois bouterolles de gueules–BRUYSEL DE SURE. D’argent embrassé de gueules de sénestre a droite–DOMANTZ, Silesia.
Embattled, battled, battelly, crenelled, or kernelled: a line of partition resembling a row of battlements, (from which it derived its origin and its name) across the shield; the term may also be applied to the edge of an ordinary. When a fesse or bend or chevron is said to be embattled, it implies that it is so upon the upper side only, though sometimes this is mentioned(fr. crenellé), and the term super-embattled is occasionally found. When a fess or a chief is embattled on the under side only, the French use the term bastillé.
ABBERBURY. The “crenelles” are properly speaking the embrasures or open spaces between the “merlons,” which are the upright solid pieces. If the ordinary is crenellated on both sides it may be said to be embattled counter embattled, and this is properly used only when the crenelles on one side are opposite to the merlons on the other, and vice versâ. It may also be said to be bretessé, and this is properly used with English heralds, to signify that the crenelles are opposite to each other. With French heralds, however, the word bretessé is frequently used for counter embattled, and these terms do not seem to be used with their respective meaning very strictly even by English heralds.
Battled grady. Battled embattled, or battled grady, is a name given to a figure having, as it were, an extra battlement, but, as usual for these fanciful names, no examples are given. And the same may be said of battled arrondi, i.e. with the tops of the battlements rounded instead of straight. The term double embattled, however, does occur, and it is possibly the same as grady.
BOYLE. Or, a fesse embattled[on the upper side only] sable–ABBERBURY, Oxon, and ADDERBURY, Sussex. Sire Johan de PENZRET de goulys a une bende batille de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire Henry de SANTON d’argent a une bend bateley sable–Roll, temp. ED. III. Or, a chevron embattled at the top gules–ASLYN, Harl. MS. 1386. Argent, a bend embattled counter embattled azure–SANDILANDS, Scotland. Azure, a bend bretessed or–BRESCETT. Or, a fesse bretessed gules–CREBBOTT, Sussex. Argent, masonny; a chief embattled sable–REYNALL, Devon, 1716. Argent, three bendlets embattled sable–Hadrian de CASTELLO, Bishop of Hereford, 1502; Bath and Wells, 1504-18. Per bend embattled argent and gules–BOYLE, Middlesex. Argent, a saltire counter embattled sable–Richard KIDDER, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1691-1703. Sable, a fesse counter embattled between three Catherine wheels or–Thomas de BRENTINGHAM, Bp. of Exeter, 1370-94. Or, a fesse double embattled at the top sable; a label of three points gules–M. Richard ABBERBURY, [Roll, A.D. 1392-97]. Azure, three bendlets embattled counter embattled or–FREYNES.
Embelief, a word of doubtful origin, but of which enhanced is the probable signification, as will be seen by comparison of the two blazoning of the arms of GREILLI. Sir Harris Nicolas suggests that it is a misreading of en le chief. Confer with derechief in arms of S.AMANT, from Roll of Carlaverock, under roundle.
Thomas GREILEY, de goules a trois bendes d’or embelief–Roll, temp. HEN. III. [Johan de GRELLI, gules, three bendlets enhanced or–Roll, temp. EDW. I.; Harl. MS. 6137.] Robert de MERE, gules, a lion ‘rampant sautant embelif’ d’argent–Roll, temp. EDW. III.; [Harl. MS. 6589.]
Emblazon: to draw out in full and colour a coat of arms from a description. Reverse of to blazon. Embordured: a term given, but not used, in British heraldry, signifying that the bordure is of the same tincture as the field, and only distinguished from it by the shadow. Embouté, (fr.): knobbed; used when the end of a handle or staff is of a different tincture.
Crest of GWIN. Embowed, (fr. courbé): bent, or bowed; applied to the arm of a man, and still more frequently to dolphins. The term flected or flexed is also used of the arm of a man, to signify the same.
On a wreath or and sable, a dexter arm embowed vambraced proper, the gauntlet holding a sword below the hilt, in bend sinister, point downwards, argent, hilt and pomel gold–Crest of GWIN, Wales, and Berks. Sable, three dexter arms vambraced, couped at the shoulders, embowed to the sinister, two and one, the upper parts in pale, the lower fesswise, each holding in the gauntlet a sword erect, all proper garnished or–STRONGITHARM. Sable, three dolphins embowed argent–KENDALL, Exeter.
Bend embowed. With French heralds the word courbé is more frequently applied to the fesse, bend, &c., when either are slightly bend upwards. English heralds also speak of the bend, &c., as arched, enarched, or embowed, but such devices, though common in French arms, and more so still in German arms, are very seldom, if ever, found in true English heraldry. An example of a bend embowed is given under Crown of Rue, from the Dukedom of SAXONY.
Argent, three bars enarched in the middle gules–HENCKELL, London.
Bowed embowed, and flexed reflexed, are terms used to signify the from of the latter S: the terms also annodated, torqued, &c., and used irregularly for the same: and bowed counter embowed is said of two arms bowed in opposite directions. Embraced, (fr. entrelacé); e.g. of Annulets. Embracing: hands are sometimes so described; also improperly used of annulets when braced. Embrassé. See Emanche.
Trundle. Embroiderers’ Broaches, Trundles, and Quill. The broach is an instrument used by embroiderers, and borne by their several companies; it is represented as in the margin, but as a rule two are borne together in saltire. The Trundle represents a quill of gold thread, two of which are represented in the arms of the London company, as in fig. 1, though in the drawing there appears to be some confusion between the trundles, fusils, and quills when full.
Quills. Quill(or wheel quill) of yarn, if full, would be represented as in fig. 2; an empty quill as in fig. 3; but there are many varieties of drawing of the same arms. See also Fusil.
Paly of six, argent and azure, on a fesse gules between three lions passant guardant or, two broaches in saltire between two trundles(i.e. quills of gold thread) or–EMBROIDERERS’ COMPANY of London[incorporated 1562]. Gules, two broaches in saltire argent, between as many trundles or, on a chief of the second a lion passant gules–EMBROIDERERS’ COMPANY at Bristol and Chester. Argent, three weaver’s shuttles sable, topped and furnished with quills of yarn, the threads pendent or–SHUTTLEWORTH.
Embrued: bloody, or rather, dropping with blood, and so different from ensanglanté. Weapons are thus blazoned(e.g. spear-heads, swords), and also sometimes an animal, especially a wolf. Emerald. See Vert. Emerasses, or ailettes; also written alettes and alerons(all fr.): small escutcheons affixed to the shoulders of an armed knight. They are named in the inventory of Humphrey de Bohun, taken 1322.
iiij peire de alettes des armes le Counte de Hereford.
Ailettes shewn in the brass of Sir Roger de TRUMPINGTON. They are sometimes shield-shaped, as those of Sir Simon de FELBRIGGE, K.G., on his sepulchral brass at Felbrigge, Norfolk, which are charged with the cross of S.George, and sometimes circular, as those of the TURVILE family at Wolston, Warwickshire, which are charged with the arms of the knight himself. Square emerasses with the arms of the bearer generally denote that he was a knight banneret, as in the figure of one of the HOWARD family at East Winch church, Norfolk, and in that of Sir Roger de TRUMPINGTON, which is shewn in the margin. Emmanché, (fr.): of hatchets, or hammers, and the like, having handles of a different tincture. Emmet. See Ant. Emmuselé, (fr.): muzzled, e.g. of a bear. Emoussée, (fr.): of an arrow, if the point is couped or blunted. Empenné, (fr.): feathered; or arrows. Empiétant, (fr.): of birds, preying. Empoigné, (fr.):=banded; used e.g. of arrows when three or more are tied together. Enaluron. See Bordure. Enarched. See Embowed. Encensoir, (fr.). See Censer. Enceppé: girt or collared about the middle, as of apes or monkeys, e.g. the supporters of the arms of the Duke of LEINSTER, which are said to have reference to a family legend. Enchaussé, (fr.): only occurs in French arms, and that rarely; it refers to a portion of the shield obscured, and seems to be the reverse of chapé. Enclavé, (fr.): a rarely-used term of French heralds, describing a peculiar partition of the shield, when one portion enters another like a mortise. Encoché, (fr.): of an arrow notched or nooked. Endented, (fr. endenté). See Indented. Endentures, (old fr.): indentations. Endorse, endorce, or indorse: a diminutive of the pale, of which it is one-fourth, or according to some authorities, one-eight. It bears exactly the same relation to that ordinary as the cottice does to the bend. See Cross, §8.
Argent, a pale engrailed between two indorses sable–BELLASIS, Scotland.
Endorsed: often used in the sense of addorsed, q.v. Enfiled, (fr. enfilé). When a sword is drawn with the head of a beast, a coronet, or any other object so placed that the blade pierces it though, the sword is said to be enfiled with such an object; or in the case of rings, crowns, or fillets, though which a sword or crosier is passed, the term may also be used.
ORFORD. Gules, three keys enfiled with as many crowns or–Robert ORFORD, Bp. of Ely, 1303-10. Azure, a sword palewise argent, enfiled in chief by a dexter hand couped fessways gules, all between two mullets pierced or–MAC MORUN. Per pale azure and gules, over all a lion passant guardant holding a crosier enfiled with a mitre or; all within a bordure argent charged with eight text B’s sable–BERMONDSEY, Cluniac Priory, Surrey. Argent, on a cross patty gules a crosier enfiling a mitre or–Bishopric of CORK and ROSS.
Royal Arms of ENGLAND. England, Armorial insignia of. The Insignia of England are said to have had originally only two lions, but that on the marriage of Henry II. with Eleanor of Aquitaine, another lion for that duchy was then added. They thus appear for the first time on the Great Seal of RICHARD I.; the Seals of the two Williams, as well as of the two preceding Henries, shewing only the reverse side of the shield, and that of Stephen being to all appearance plain. From this time forward they have been recognized as the Arms of England.
Le roy DENGLETER, de goules a treys lepardes de or–[Harl. MS. 6589, temp. HEN. III.] Le Roy d’ANGLETERRE, porte goules trois leopards d’or–[MS. L. 14, College of Arms, temp. HEN. III.] Gules, three lions[properly leopards] passant guardant in pale or–Royal Arms of ENGLAND.
Englanté, (fr.): of an oak-tree with the acorns on it. Engoulant, or Ingullant: swallowing or devouring. See Vorant. Engoulé, (fr.): in French arms ordinaries are found terminated with heads of animals, in the act of swallowing them, e.g. sauton engoulé de quatre têtes de leopards. Engrailed, or Ingrailed, (fr. engrélé): a term applied to the cutting of the edge of a border, bend, or fesse, &c., into small semicircular indents, the teeth or points of which being outward enter the field: it is the contrary of invected, in which case the points are inwards. The term, as will be seem from the examples, is an old one, and is very frequently applied to the bordure; when applied to crosses and saltires heralds contend that they ought not to be engrailed at their ends. The term counter engrailed is found, but it is seldom employed; as when a fesse chevron or bend is blazoned engrailed , it implies that the ordinary is to be so on both sides. With French heralds the term engrelure signifies a narrow chief, so to speak, engrailed on the lower side.
RADCLIFFE. Adam de NEWMARCHE de goules ung fece engrele or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sire Johan de PENBRUGE de argent, od le chef de azure e une bende engrele de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire Philip de DABENEY, port gules une fesse engrele d’argent de quatre peces–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire BOTEVILL, port d’argent une fesse engrele gules de iiij points, trois feuilles de sable un le cheif–Ibid. Argent, a bend engrailed sable–RADCLIFFE. Gules, six annulets or, three, two, and one, within a bordure engrailed compony argent and azure–CROUMWELL. Argent, on a pale voided engrailed counter engrailed three crosses patty, all within a bordure sable–CROWCHE. De sinople, à trois fasces d’argent à l’engrelure du même–SAINT CHAMANS DU PECHER, Limosin.
Engrélé, (fr.): engrailed. Engrossing block. See Crest of Wire-drawers. Enguiché, (fr.): of ends of horns, when of different tincture. Enhanced, (fr. enhaussé): applied to an ordinary borne higher than its usual position. Enlevé, (fr.): raised or elevated; synonymous with enhanced. Enquerre, (fr.), Armes à. q.v. Enraged, (fr. fier); applied to the horse when saliant; also to a boar, and rarely to a lion. Ensanglanté, (fr.): of the pelican and other animals represented bleeding, i.q. vulned. Ensign, or Insignia, (fr. enseigne): the more correct term for the armorial bearings of a Kingdom, of an Office, or of a Community. In common parlance, however, the Arms of England, or the arms of this or that town, are spoken of. The term ensigned has a different signification, and is used of a charge having a cross, or mitre, or crown, placed above it, and the term supporting such a charge is sometimes used also with the same signification. It is to be distinguished from enfiled. A staff also may be ensigned with a flag.
Sable, a chevron ensigned with a cross patty argent–FAIRFIELD. Azure, an annulet ensigned with a cross patty, and interlaced with a saltire, couped and conjoined at base or–Borough of Southwark. Argent, an oak tree eradicated in bend sinister vert, surmounted by a sword in bend dexter azure, hilted or, ensigned on the front with a royal crown of the last–M’GREGOR.
Entire, throughout, fixed, or firm: used of Crosses(see Cr., §7), or other charges, to signify that they are extended to the sides of the escutcheon. Entoured. See Enveloped. Entoyer, Entoire, and Entier. See under Bordure. Entrailed: outlined, with black lines. See Cross, §18, and Adumbration. Entrelacé, (fr.): interlaced. Entrevaillé: a French term applied to fish when interlaced in bars or bendlets. Entwined. See Enveloped. Enty: a word adopted but by few writers from the French enté, a graft, and applied to the base of the shield when parted off by a line chevronwise: written by some heralds ampty. See Point: also Gusset.
Argent, on a chief enty[in more recent blazon ‘indented’] azure five crosses croslet or–Raphe de WILSHERE.
Enurney. See Bordure. Envecked. See Invected. Enveloped, enwrapped, entwisted, entwined, environed(fr. environné), entoured(fr. entouré), are all terms used in blazoning with much the same signification. Enveloped and enwrapped are used when any charge is entwisted or entwined about something else, e.g. of boys’ heads, (q.v.) when enveloped about the neck by a snake.
Enveloped. Or, a pillar sable enwrapped with an adder argent–MYNTER. Sable, a crosier in pale entwined with a ribbon between two coronets … S.Benet’s Abbey, HULME. Azure, three boy’s heads affronty couped at the shoulders proper, armed or, each enveloped(or enwrapped) about the neck with a snake vert–VAUGHAN, Wales.
Environed is more frequently applied when the charge is surrounded by wreaths, and entoured, perhaps, when other charges are placed around in orle: also used of a shield which is decorated with branches.
Azure, an annulet environing a barrulet, between two bars, and in chief a cross patty fitchy or–HOLTE. Sable, an annulet environing a crosier, the foot enwrapped by a snake; in chief two coronets argent–Benedictine Abbey, BARDNEY, co. Lincoln.
Environed. See Enveloped. Enwrapped. See Enveloped. Epanoui, (fr.): of fleur-de-lis, &c., the top flower being open with buds between. Eperon, (fr.): Spur. Epervier, (fr.): sparrow-hawk, under Falcon. Epieu, (fr.): a kind of halbert used in the chase. Epis, (fr.): used for ears of corn, &c., with stalks erect. Episcopal staff. See Crosier. Eployé: the French term for displayed, applied to wings of birds. It seems in some cases to imply the double-headed Eagle, q.v. Equartilé: i.q. quarterly. Equipollé, (fr.): chequy of nine squares, five of one tincture, four of another. See Cross, §5. Equipped, (fr. equipé): of a vessel, with all its sails, ropes, anchor, &c., complete. Er: contraction of the word ermine, often used in tricking. Eradicated, (fr. arraché): used of a tree(q.v.) which has been torn up by the roots.
HUGH DE ABRINCIS. Erased, eraced, or erazed(fr. arraché): violently torn off, leaving a jagged edge. Then term is chiefly applied to the heads and limbs of animals. When applied to birds’ legs the expression à-la-quise, i.e. à la cuisse, is often added to signify that the upper part of the leg is shewn. A head erased close signifies that it is torn off without any part of the neck remaining attached to it.
Azure, a wolf’s head erased argent–HUGH DE ABRINCIS(or LUPUS), Earl of Chester. Argent, an elephant’s head erased gules–BRODRICK. Ermine, a goat’s head erased gules–GOTLEY. Azure, three eagle’s legs erased a la quise or–GAMBON. Gules, a lion rampant, the head argent, divided by a line of erasure from the body within an orle of seven 5-foils or–GRACE.
Erect: the term used by heralds for upright, as of heads of animals, fishes, &c.; also of lions’ tails, placed perpendicularly; and of the hand in the baronet’s badge. The word should not be used with relation to any charge, the natural position of which is upright, as a flower or a tree; it is very properly used for leaves and fruit, of which the natural position is pendent. The word is also supposed to be more properly used of certain animals and reptiles instead of rampant, and of crabs and lobsters instead of haurient; it is sometimes applied even to fish, though perhaps improperly. Insects also are found blazoned as erect, e.g. bees, q.v.
BOOTHE. Argent, three boar’s heads erased erected sable–John BOOTHE, Bp. of Exeter, 1465-78. Gules on a sinister hand couped and erect proper, a human heart of the field charged with a cross argent–MULENCAR, Amsterdam. Argent, three crabs erect sable–ALLYM or AUDLYM. Sable, three salmons erect argent, two and one; a chief or–KIDSON, Bishopwearmouth, Durham. Gules, three fishes erect or, two and one–O’CAHANE, Ireland.
TATESHALE. Ermine, or Ermin, (old fr. armine, fr. hermine): the fur most frequently used in heraldry. It derives its name from the Ermine or mus Armenicus(so call from being found in the woods of Armenia), a small white animal whose fur it is. The black spots are supposed to represent the tails of ermines, sewed to the white fur for its enrichment. When a bend is ermine, the spots(like all other charges placed upon a bend) must be bendwise, but on a chevron, saltire, &c., they are drawn upright. The term ermyn is frequently found in the ancient rolls of arms, and is very often applied to a quarter or canton. Ermine is practically used like any other tincture, and so any animals, e.g. lions, may be blazoned ermine. Also a crescent, q.v., and even martlets may be blazoned ermine, both occurring in the arms of Frank DE BOUN. A coat of arms of ermine only has been ascribed to the dukes of BRITTANY, but more frequently to the province,
Robert de TATESHALE, eschequere d’or et de goules, ung cheif d’ermyne–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Robert de TATISHALE eschequere d’or e de goules al chef armine–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Harl. MS. 6589. John de NEVILLE, COWERDE, mascule d’or e de goules ung quartier de hermyne–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Hugh BOLEBEK, vert ung lion d’ermyn rampand–Ibid. Le Counte de Bretaine eschekere d’or e dazur a une kantelle dermine a un bordure de goules–Harl. MS. 6589, temp. HEN. III.
Cele de TATESHALE a oun De or e de rouge eschequeré Por sa valour o eus tirée Au chef de ermine outréement. Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
The arms, too, which in some rolls, tinctured blanc are supposed to represent this fur, as they are in others tinctured ermine, the tincture representing rather the white skin of the animal than the metal. For instance, at the siege of Carlaverock the arms of Morice de BERKELE are described as–
Vermeil … croissilie o un chevron blanc,
through the arms of the Berkley family are elsewhere blazoned–
Gules, crusilly argent, a chevron ermine.
Again, while numerous instances occur of “gules with a fesse ermine,” it is doubtful if an example is to be found of “gules with a fesse argent.” And the Carlaverock poet possibly intends ermine when he writes:–
Bien doi mettre en mon serventois Baniere ot rouge ou entaillie Ke Elys de AUBIGNI li courtois Ot fesse blanche engreelie.
The same poem also gives.
BADELSMERE, Ki tout le jour Portoit en blanc au bleu label Iluec se contint bien e bel Fesse rouge entre deux jumeaux.
Again, the waterbougets in the arms described there as.
Guillemes de Ros assemblans I fu rouge o trois bouz blans
appear afterwards, blazoned of different tinctures, sometimes as argent, sometimes as ermine.
Ermine spots. Although the form shewn in the illustrations is used in all modern emblazoning, there were ancient forms of the ermine spot, as shewn in the margin. No. 1 is from the surcoat of Sir Robert du BOIS, upon his tomb in Fersfield Church, Norfolk,–he died 1311; No. 2, from the stall plates of Sir Walter PAVELEY, one of the first knights of the Garter, and Sir Thomas BANASTER, his successor in the stall,–the first died 1376, the other, 1379; and No. 3 from the stall-plate of Sir Simon DE FELBRYGG, K.G., who died A.D. 1422. An ermine spot, (fr. hermine, or moucheture, whence the word mouchetor in some heraldic works) is occasionally found to occur by itself; sometimes more than one are named, and sometimes, when there is only space for a few spots, the term spotted is used.
Azure, three plates, on each an ermine spot sable–NEWALL. Or, on two bars azure as many barrulets dancetty argent; a chief indented of the second charged with an ermine spot or–SAWBRIDGE. Argent, a chevron between three crows sable, in each beak an ermine spot–LLOYD, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1680, Lichfield, 1692, and Worcester, 1700-17. Argent, a fesse gules between three ermine spots sable–KILVINGTON. Argent, two bars sable, spotted ermine, in chief a lion passant gules–HILL, co. Wexford. D’argent, à cinq hermines de sable posées 2, 1 et 2–BROUILHAC DE LA MOTHE COMTAIS, Poitou. D’azure, à trois besants d’argent chargés chacum d’une moucheture d’hermines–VENCE, Orleanais.
A cross erminée or of four ermine spots.–See Cross §8.
ABP.BRADWARDINE. Ermines(fr. contre hermine), and counter ermine, as given by Nisbet: a fur resembling ermine in pattern, but having the tinctures reversed, the field being sable, and the spots argent.
Barry of six ermine and ermines–BRADWARDINE, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1349. Argent, a chevron engrailed ermine; on a chief sable three martlets of the first–WILDE, co. Leicester. Ermines, simply–MIGNON. Per chevron ermine and ermines, a chevron per chevron sable and argent; on the first three estoiles or–WIGSTON.
Erminites, or erminetes and erminois. These are varieties of ermine, i.e. of the fur of the same from but of different colours. The first is supposed to be distinguished by having a red hair on the side of each spot, and it is doubtful if a case occurs in true English heraldry; erminois is used when the field is or, and spots sable. The pean is said to be sable with spots or. This name was derived from the old fr. pannes, or square pieces of fur of different tincture sewn together. The French call all the above furs hermines, adding the names of the tincture.
Quarterly indented erminois and gules; in the first quarter a lion passant guardant gules–CROFT, co. York. Sable, a chevron erminois; on a chief indented argent an estoile between two mullets gules–KEIRLL, co. Hereford. Per bend sinister ermine and erminois, a lion rampant or–EDDOWES. Pean, a cross quarter pierced erminois–GROIN, Watlington, Norfolk, Harl. MS., 1177. Per bend sinister ermine and pean, a lion rampant or gorged with a wreath of oak vert, and supporting in the dexter forepaw a sword erect proper pomel and hilt gold–LLOYD, Lancing, Sussex. Per bend sinister ermine and ermines, a lion rampant reguardant erminois; on a chief azure three mullets of six points argent–DAVIS. Or, a cross gules, semée of ermine spots argent–DEOBODY, Ireland. De gueules, a six hermines d’argent 3, 2, et 1–ROUX. D’argent, semé d’hermines de sable–BERRY, Poitou, Languedoc.
Ermine, (the animal). See Weasel. Escallop, or escallop shell, (fr. coquille). This is the badge of a pilgrim, also a symbol of the Apostle S.James the Great, who is generally drawn in the garb of a pilgrim. As it is found in ancient heraldry as early as Henry III.’s time, it was probably suggested by the eastern pilgrimages. It is borne in various ways, often surmounting an ordinary or other charge, especially a cross, chief, or bordure, &c. It is clear that the old French term coquille(from which we derive out modern cockle shell), is the same, though heralds pretend that when this is used the shell should have the edge upwards. The shell is always represented with the outside of the valve towards the spectator; but in French arms the interior is sometimes shewn, and then the term vannet in used. See fan under basket.
Duke of BEDFORD. Argent, an escallop gules–PRELATE, Glouc. Azure, three escallops or–Abbey of READING, Berks. [Under the patronage of S.James Abbey.] Per pale argent and gules, an escallop or–Augustinian Abbey of S.James, Northampton. Gules, two lions passant guardant or, oppressed by a bend azure, within a bordure of the third semé of escallops argent–HOLLAND. Quarterly argent and gules, in the second and third a fret or, over all a bendlet sable, charged with three escallops of the first–SPENCER, of Althorpe, Northamp. [The mullet or is a marks of cadency.] Argent, a lion rampant gules; on a chief sable three escallops of the first–RUSSELL, Duke of Bedford. Herbert de CHAMBERLEYNE, de goules a trois escallops d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Rafe BIGOT, d’or ung crois de goules a les escallops d’argent en le croix–Ibid. Warin de MONCHENSY, d’or ove trois escocheons barres de verre et de goules–Ibid. Sire Thomas de SEIN LOY, de goules a une fesse e iij escalops de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire de ST.LOE, port de gules a une fes d’argent entre trois cokils d’argent–Roll, temp. ED. III. Le Sire de HALTON, port d’argent deux barres d’asur a trois escalops gules en la chief–Ibid. Monsire Richard de HOWLAND, port de sable a une lyon rampant d’argent a une urle des cokelles d’argent–Ibid. Monsire Robert INGHAM, port d’ermin a une fes de gules trois cokils d’or en le fes–Ibid. Barry of four argent and azure semé of cockleshells–Silesian family of VON STRACHWITZ. D’azur, a trois vannets d’or–BEAUSSIER DE LA CHAULANE, Provence.
The escallop, it will be noted, is sometimes used to denote a difference, but it does not occur amongst the recognised charges for this purpose. See Cadency.
Pale of six argent and vert an escallop for “difference,” as the first–HOPWOOD, Lancaster. Or, an escallop for “difference” between three crescents within a double tressure flory counter flory gules–SEATON, Pethoder, Scotland.
Escallopped is used in a remarkable case, forming a kind of vair, in which the scallops represent scales.
Barry of four, counter escallopped argent and gules, each scale nailed sable–ARMOURER.
Ascribed to MANDEVILLE. Escarboucle: since the earliest form which we find of this word charboucle, which only in very much later times was corrupted into carbuncle, we must look for its origin in a buckle of some kind. The present form seems to owe its origin to the metal-work on the shield, such as is exhibited on the monumental effigy(commonly ascribed to Geoffrey of Mandeville, Earl of Essex, who died in 1144,) now existing in the Temple church. The effigy, however, can scarcely be earlier than 1185, the date of the consecration of the church. The device being so exactly of the character of the metal-work of the thirteenth century it was no doubt intended by the sculptor to pourtray the ornamental iron-work, which was added to strengthen the shield, the protuberances representing bosses or rivets. That they were not intended for the arms of DE MANDEVILLE is clear, as in the contemporary Rolls of Arms we have his shield blazoned thus.
Le comte de MANDEVILE, quartele d’or et de goulez–Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Nor is there any reason to attribute them especially to any knight who is likely to have been buried there. The special figure appears afterwards to have been assumed as a regular device, and it is found amongst the historical arms painted on Queen Elizabeth’s tomb in Westminster Abbey, but it is of more ornamental a character than the one on the supposed tomb of Geoffrey Mandeville. Having become a regular device, and borne by several families, it came to have varied nomenclature, and the number of rays was reduced to six and extended to twelve, so that the number came to be mentioned. Some authors have called the rays staves, nor is this altogether needless, as examples are to be found with the staves blazoned nowyed, or pometty, and other floretty. In some of the cases, however, the device thus blazoned may be intended for a wheel, but badly drawn. The name charboucle is the old form, as will be seen, since it is used in the earliest rolls as well as by Chaucer.
“His shield was all of gold so red, A charboucle beside.” And therin was a bores hed, Chaucer, Rime of Sire Thopas, 13798.
Arms on ELIZABETH’S tomb, Westminster. Le Counte de CLEVE, de goules a un eschochon d’argent a un charbocle d’or flurte–Roll, temp. HEN. III. ; Harl. MS. 6589. Gules, a chief argent over all an Escarbuncle or–Arms ascribed to the Counts of Anjou. [Painted on Queen’s Elizabeth’s tomb.] Argent, an escarbuncle or, over all an escucheon sable–CLEVE. Argent, an escarbuncle sable–BOTHER. Gules, an escarbuncle of six points or–NEVERNE. Argent, two bars azure, over all an escarbuncle of eight points gules, pometty and floretty or–BLOUNT. [In another family an escarbuncle gules nowed or, and in another of eight rays or.] Argent, on a bend gules three escarbuncles or–THORNETON. Gules, a cross within a bordure or, over all an escarbuncle of eight staves sable–Benedictine Abbey of S.JOHN, COLCHESTER. Sable, an escarbuncle or, but with twelve rays–RUTHFIO, Cornwall. Argent, an escarbuncle of eight rays argent, over all a fesse as the second–PHEIPOWE, Ireland. Quarterly gules and argent, over all an escarbuncle sable oppressed by a quatrefoil quarterly argent and gules–Sire Geoffrey MANDEVILLE, Earl of Essex. [Only in a very late MS.]
Escroll. Escroll, or Scroll: a long strip of parchment bearing the motto. It is for the most part placed below the arms, but sometimes, especially in Scotland, above the crest. Scrolls are occasionally found in both these positions. Escroll occur rarely as charges.
Or, on a bend sable, three ostrich feathers argent, the quills transfixed through as many escrolls gold–Sir Roger de CLARENDON, [natural son of Edward the Black Prince]. Azure, a lion rampant or between three escrolls argent–GOULD. Gules, a coronet or, ensigned by a demi swan without wings argent; from the mouth a scroll compassing the neck in form of a rein sable–BUCKHILL. Argent, a lion rampant azure, holding in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert in chief a scroll sable, thereon the word Emmanuel or–EMMANUEL COLLEGE, Cambridge.
Esculapius’ Rod is borne in coats of arms.
Per fesse or and sable, a lion rampant counterchanged, armed and langued gules, on a canton of the last an Esculapius’ rod palewise entwined with serpents argent–M’WHIRTER. Sable, on a chevron between three spear heads argent, two staves of Esculapius, chevron wise, each entwined by a serpent proper–JONES, co. Carnarvon.
Escutcheon, (fr. écusson): (1) The shield itself whereon arms are emblazoned, (2) more especially of a small shield of which more than one(generally three) are borne on the shield. A single one so borne is called in inescutcheon. The term is found in early rolls spelt in various ways. Where there is a single inescutcheon the arms might be blazoned as with a bordure of such a tincture as the arms of DARCY shew. While the pierced or false escutcheons of the old rolls would be now blazoned as orles. As a rule the escutcheon is drawn much smaller than the space enclosed by a bordure.
MONTACUTE. Argent, three escutcheons gules–HAY. Warin de MONCHENSY, d’or ove trois escocheons barres de verre et de goules–Roll, temp. HENRY III. Le Counte de WHITINGWEN veire dor e de goules a une escuchon dazur a un sautour dargent–Ibid. Sire William de VAUS, de argent, a un escuchoun de goules, od la bordure de merelos de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Johan DARCY, de argent, a un escuchon de sable, od les rosettes de goules assis en la manere de bordure–Ibid. Sire Robert DARCY, de argent a iij roses de goules, od la bordure enlente de sable–Ibid. Sire Thomas de BAYLOLF, de argent a une escuchoun de goules percee e un label de azure–Ibid. Sire Bertelmehn de A WYLLERS, de argent a iij escoucheons de goulys–Ibid. Or, an inescutcheon gules–CONSTABLE. Eustace de BALIOLL, d’azur au faus escocheon d’or crusule d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sr Alexandre de BAYLOLFZ, porte d’argent ou ung faux eschue de gulez–Roll, temp. ED. I. [Harl. MS. 6589.] Or, two bars gules; on a chief azure an inescutcheon ermine–NORTON, London, 1611, and STRELTON, co. Salop. Or, three bends wavy azure; on an inescutcheon three fusils–Simon MONTACUTE, Bp. of Worcester, 1337-45. Gules, crusily and a lion passant gardant or, a canton argent, charged with an eagle displayed sable, on the breast an escucheon gold charged with three bars azure–ASTELL, Leicester. …. a castle with five towers, over the port, an escucheon argent on a cross gules a fleur-de-lis or–Seal of City of LINCOLN. Or, on a lion rampant sable an antique escutcheon or, charged with a cross patty gules–POWNALL. Gules, on a rock proper a castle triple-towered argent masoned sable, surmounted by an escucheon gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or–Town of DORCHESTER, Dorset.
Escutcheon of Pretence: a shield containing the arms of an heiress, placed in the centre of her husband’s arms instead of being impaled with them, is so called.
Argent, on a fesse dancetty azure, between three mullets sable as many bezants, over all an inescutcheon of pretence or, a sinister wing erect sable–DIMSDALE, Herts.
Espanié, (old fr.): of an eagle, displayed. Espaule, (old fr.): for shoulder. Esquartelé=quarterly. Esquire, equire, esquierre, or squire(fr. esquerre, or équerre): a figure similar in form to a gyron. The chief examples are those in the arms of MORTIMER(earls of March), which are variously blazoned, each successive heraldic writer attempting to improve upon his predecessor. The following its the description in the Siege of Carlaverock, and it has been thought well to give the English in a paraller column.
Epuis Rogiers de Mortemer, |And next Roger de Mortimer, Ki, deca mer e dela mer, |Who, on both sides the sea, A porté quel part ke ait alé |Has borne wherever he went L’escu barré au chief palé |A shield barry with a chief paly E les cornieres gyronnées, |And the corners gyronny, De or e de asur enluminées, |Emblazoned with gold and blue, O le escuchon vuidie de ermine. |With the escutcheon voided of Roll of Carlaverock. | ermine.
Next are given the varieties of blazoning, the same, or nearly the same, arms in different rolls of arms, as well as one or two more recent examples.
HOGELEY. Roger de MORTIMER, barre, a cheif palee a corners gerone, d’or et d’azur, a ung escuchon d’argent–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sire Rog. de MORTIMER, barre de or e de azure od le chef palee les corners geroune, a un escuchon de argent–Roll, temp. EDW. II. Sire Rog. de MORTIMER, le oncle, meyme les armes, od le escuchon de ermyne–Ibid. Roger de MORTYMER, barre dor et dazur al chef pale al chantel gerone a un escochon dargent–Roll, temp. HEN. III., Harl. MS. 6589. Per pale azure and argent, two bars, and in chief a pale between as many esquires based dexter and sinister all counterchanged; an escutcheon of the second–MORTYMER[as blazoned by York Herald, Harl. MS. 807, from Hagley Ch., Worcester]. Barry of six or and azure, on a chief of the first, three palets, between two based esquires[some say gyrons or gyronnies] of the second; over all an inescutcheon argent–MORTIMER. On a chief azure between two cantons per bend or and the last, dexter and sinister, as many palets gold–MORTIMER. Barry of five azure and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escucheon argent–BLANCFRONT. Barry of five gules and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escucheon or–HOGELEY. Barry of five sable and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escutcheon barry of six gules and ermine–BUTTELER. Barry of seven azure and argent on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all on an escucheon a cross croslet fitchy argent–Benedictine Abbey at WINCHCOMBE or WINCHELCOMBE, Gloucester. Per fesse; the chief part quarterly indented per fesse or and ermine; the base argent charged with squires[cantons voided] sable–BARLAY.
Theoretical heralds say that the esquire may be drawn across the whole shield, but no examples are found; while the expression based or bast esquire has probably arisen from some error, but it is found used by more than one writer. It would have been better if heralds had been content with the old form, corners gyronny. Esquire, (lat. armiger, fr. escuyer): a title of a gentleman of the rank immediately below a knight. It was originally a military office, an esquire being(as the name escuyer, from escu, a shield, implies) a knight’s attendant and shield bearer. Esquires may be theoretically divided into five classes: 1. The younger sons of peers and their eldest sons. 2. The eldest sons of knights and their eldest sons. 3. The chiefs of ancient families are esquires by prescription. 4. Esquires by creation or office. Such the heralds and serjeants at arms and some others, who are constituted esquires by receiving a collar of SS. Judges and other officers of state, justices of the peace, and the higher naval and military officers are designated esquires in their patents or commissions. Doctors in the several faculties, and barristers at law, are considered as esquires, or equal to esquires. None, however, of these offices or degrees convey gentility to the posterity of their holders. 5. the last kind of esquires are those of knights of the bath; each knight appoints two to attend upon him at his installation and at coronations. A special helmet was appropriated to esquires. Essorant, (fr.): Soaring, or rising. Essore, (fr.): of the tincture of roofs of houses(?). Estendart, (fr.): standard. See Flag.
Badge of RICHARD I. Estoile, or star, (fr. étoile): is as a rule represented of six points and wavy. Estoiles sometimes occur with a greater number of points, as eight, or sixteen. When the rays are represented straight this has been probably by accident, as the figure would then more properly be described as a mullet of so many points, but there has, no doubt, been some confusion between the estoile and mullet, the latter with English heralds being of five points, and with French heralds of six. See Mullet, also Star, and Rowel.
Sable, an estoile argent–INGILBY, Yorkshire. [other branches of the same family bear the estoile with eight and sixteen points.] Azure, an estoile of sixteen points or–HINTSON, Yorkshire. Gilbert HANSARDE, de goules a trois estoiles d’argent–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Monsire John de COBHAM, gules sur une cheveron d’or, trois estoilles de sable, entre trois lis le asur–Roll, temp. ED. III. Le Count d’OXFORD, port quarterly, d’or et gules, a un estoiele d’argent en le quarter gules devant–Ibid. Argent, a chevron between three estoiles sable–MORDAUNT, Earl of Peterborough, 1628. Ermine, on a canton sable a five-pointed estoile argent–Sir William de STROUD, Somerset. Argent, a chevron between three estoiles of eight points wavy or–WISEMAN, Scotland. Gules, a chevron engrailed between three six-pointed estoiles argent–PUISON, London. Azure, a nine-pointed estoile or–ALDHAM.
A star within a crescent appears as the badge of RICHARD I., JOHN, and HENRY III., and was possibly intended to signify the ascendancy of Christianity over Mahomedanism, and so emblematic of the Crusades. Estroict, (old fr.): used of a lion’s tail when straight. See under Tail. Etête, (fr.): used by French heralds when an animal is headless. Etincélant, (fr.): of coals when emitting sparks. Etincelé, (fr.): semé of sparks. Etrier, (fr.): stirrup.
Abp.REYNOLDS. Evangelistic Symbols: These four symbols, which have their origin in the mystical interpretation of the first chapter of Ezekiel(ver. 10) compared with the fourth chapter of Revelation(ver. 6, 7), occur on at least one coat of arms.
Azure, on a cross or between the symbols of the four evangelists of the last, five lions rampant gules, armed and langued azure–REYNOLDS, Bp. of Worc. 1309, afterwards Abp. of Cant. 1314-1327.
Laver-pot. Ewer, or laver-pot, (fr. aiguierre, also burette): this and similar charges, such as jug, and beaker, are variously represented. The laver-pot in the FOUNDERS’ Company is represented as below, but the more ordinary form is that given in the margin. The handle(fr. corniere) should be sinister, and the lip dexter. This charge does not appear to be represented in any of the ancient rolls of arms by name, but perhaps some of the ancient pots, q.v., were represented like pitchers. The term flagon also occurs(fr. flacon probably answers to the same).
Azure, on a chief or between two ewers[or beakers] in chief, and a three-legged pot with two handles in base, of the second three roses gules seeded gold, barbed vert–Company of BRAZIERS, incorporated temp. HEN. VI. Azure, a laver-pot between two taper candlesticks or–FOUNDERS’ Company[arms originally granted, 1590]. Gules, on a fesse wavy argent, between three pitchers double eared or, as many bees volant proper–CONDUITT, Westminster[granted 1717]. Sable, on a chevron ermine between three jugs argent, as many martlets of the first–WHITE. Argent, three ewers gules–BLAND. Argent, three water-pots covered gules within a bordure sable bezanty–MONBOUCHER. Gules, three pitchers argent–CONDUIT. Argent, a bend engrailed between six ewers sable–WOOD. Argent, on a bend sable three ewers of the first–LEWER. Sable, three ewers argent–BUTLER; also TOTEWHILL, Cornwall. Sable, on a chevron ermine between three flagons, the two in chief with spouts argent, as many martlets gules–WHITE, Kent.
The old French pichier, the modern pitcher, is found as early as the roll of the Siege of Carlaverock, but it appears to be a solitary example, and the name of the bearer seems rather to suggest its connection with the water bouget.
Le bon Bertram de MONTBOUCHIER, En son escu de argent luisant De goules, furent trois pichier En le ourle noire le besant. Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Per bend gules and azure, a pitcher in bend or; on a chief of the last a beast’s head erased between two mullets sable–WHEELER[Harl. MS., 1404; but probably meant for the arms of Wheeler, which are a fish-wheel in bend or, on a chief of the last a wolf’s head erased sable between two ogresses]. Azure, a fesse ermine between three pitchers or–PITCHARD, co. Brecknock.
Ewers are borne by families of TODWELL, REGINALD, &c. Expanded, or expansed, i.q. displayed. Some writers would confine the term displayed to birds of prey, and apply that of expanded to tame fowls. Extendant: also used in the sense of displayed, and likewise to signify that some charge generally found curved(as a serpent), is borne straight. Eye: The human eye is sometimes represented in arms; the eyes of animals are rarely referred to, and only when they are of a different tincture.
Vert, on a canton argent, an eye proper–WALKER, Barbadoes. Argent, an oak-tree growing out of a mount in base vert; in chief a human eye eradiated proper, all within a bordure gules–WATT, Edinburgh. Barry of six azure and argent, on a chief of the second three eyes gules–DELAHAY, Ireland. Barry of six or and sable, on a pale gules an eye argent weeping and dropping or–DODGE, Suffolk. Azure, a chevron or between three eyes argent–LEGIER. Argent, three cows passant sable, eyes gules, collared or–Benedictine Alien Priory at COWICK.
Eyrant, or Ayrant: applied to eagles and other birds, as if sitting on their nests. Eyry: the nest of a bird of prey.
Dacre’s knot. See Cord. Dagger, (fr. poignard): Amongst weapons daggers are frequently borne, though blazoned under different names. Their position should be described, whether paleways or fessways. If not otherwise stated the points should be upwards, The hilts, pomels, &c., a may be of a different tincture.
Gules, a fesse chequy argent and azure, a dagger paleways in base proper. [and in chief a mullet for difference]–LINDSAY, Pitscandly, Scotland. Sable, two daggers in saltire, points upwards, between four fleur-de-lys argent–BARROW, Bp. of Sodor and Man, 1663, afterwards of S.Asaph, 1670-80. Ermine, two bars within a bordure engrailed gules; on a canton of the last a dagger erect proper, pomel and hilt or–NUGENT, Berks. Azure, a fesse or, between three dagger’s heads of the last–LOCKYER, 1672. Azure a chevron between three daggers, with blades wavy, pointing downwards argent–CLEATHER, Cornwall.
The other names and varieties found are dirk, rapier, and skean, or skene, the last a Scottish word for a weapon, which perhaps may be best described as a short sword, and is borne mostly by various branches of the family of SKENE.
Argent, a chevron between three dirks azure hilted or, with those in chief pointing downward–GLASHAM, Scotland. Gules, a dirk palewise argent, between two fleur-de-lys in chief and a mullet in base or–MACAUL, Scotland. Gules, a dexter hand fessways, holding a rapier erect, on the point a boar’s head proper–BEATH. Azure, a skean in fesse argent, hilted and pomelled or, between three boar’s heads, couped of the second and muzzled sable–FORBES, Robslaw. Gules, three skenes palewise in fesse argent, hilts and pomels or, surmounted of as many wolves’ heads of the third–SKENE, Aberdeen. Per chevron argent and gules, three skeans surmounted with as many wolves’ heads counterchanged–SKENE, Newtile.
Daim, (fr.). See Deer. Daisy, (fr. marguerite): this flower appears but rarely.
Quarterly, argent and gules, on a cross between four half roses, a daisy counterchanged, stalked vert–George DAY, Bp. of Chichester, 1543[Harl. MS. 1116]. Argent, three daisies gules, stalked and leaved vert–DAISIE, Scotland. D’or, à trois marguerites[ou paquerettes] d’argent boutonnées d’or–PASQUIER, Orleanais.
Damask. See Rose. Dancetté or dancetty, and sometimes dantelly, (fr. denché): a zigzag line of partition, differing from indented only in the indentations, being larger in size, and consequently fewer in number. Dancetty per long is a term said to be used by some heralds to signify that the indentations are very deep; so deep as to be equivalent to pily. The terms dauncet and dauncelet are used evidently for a fesse dancetté, and there are various contractions found in the rolls, e.g. daunce, daunze, dans, &c. The fesse dancetté and the division called per fesse dancetté have but three indentations, unless particularly described otherwise.
FITZ-JOCELYN. Or, a fesse dancetté sable–VAVASOUR, Yorkshire. Gules, four bars dancetty argent–TOTTENHAM. Gules, a fesse dancetty in the upper part or–THORELYS. Monsire John de STONOR, port d’azur une dauncelet d’or une chief d’or–Roll, temp. ED. III. Azure, two bars dancetty or, a chief argent–Rt. Hon. Thomas STONOR, Baron Camoys. [The arms are painted as in the margin, in windows of Watlington and Pirton churches; also on the tomb ascribed to Sir John de Stonor Dorchester church.] Sire Richard LOVEDAY, de azure, a iij daunces de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire William DEYNCOURT, de argent, billette de sable e un daunce de sable–Ibid. Sire Edmon de KENDALE de argent a une bende daunce de vert, et ij coties daunce de goules–Ibid. Argent, a fesse dancetty with a cross formy issuing in chief gules–Arms ascribed to Reginald FITZ-JOCELYN, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1191. Sire Johan de la RIVIERE, de azure a ij daunces de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. John DEYNCOURT, azure, ung danse et billety d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sir Roger le BRED, de goules besaunte de or e un daunce de or–Roll, temp. ED. II.
ZORKE. The term downset seems a barbarism for dauncet, and as applied to a bend signifies fracted, or broken. In a grammar of Glossary of Heraldry, Harl. MS., No. 1441, fol. 97, the figure of a bend is drawn as in the margin. A figure of a double downset has already been given under bend.
Per pale argent and azure, a bend downset counterchanged–ZORKE, Cotton MS. Tiberius D, 10, fol. 672. Azure, crusilly argent, a fesse double downset ermine–MOIGNE, co. Leicester.
Danché, i.q. danché=indented. Dancing: applied to bears. Danish hatchet: see Axe. Ditto warrior: see Man. Dart, (fr. dart). See Spear. Dauncelet, (fr.): a bar dancetty. Daw. See Raven. De l’un en l’autre, or De l’un à l’autre, nearly always means counterchanged, except in the case when applied to ‘two bends indented de l’un en l’autre.’ Death’s head. See Achievements; also Bones. Debased: when arms are reversed. See Abatement. Debruised, (fr. brisé): 1. a term applied more especially to an animal having an ordinary or other charge over it, which also extends over part of the field as well. It is more usual to blazon an ordinary thus treated as surmounted by, though there does not appear to be any very definite rule followed as to the distinctive used of the two terms. It will be observed that this differs essentially from one bearing being charged with another, because in the latter case the sur-charge does not extend into the field.
STUART. Argent, a lion rampant gules, debruised with a ragged staff in bend throughout or–STUART, [being an augmentation given by King Charles VI. of France, to Sir Alexander STUART, knight, and since borne by the family upon an inescutcheon over their paternal arms.] Azure, a lion rampant argent, debruised with a bend gules–WAYLAND, Kent. Argent, a saltire sable, debruised of a pale gules–John CONEYBEARE, Bp. of Bristol, 1750-55. Sable, a fesse debruised by a pile or–BRINGBURN. Or, a chevron gules surmounted by a bendlet azure–Robert de STAFFORD.
The terms depressed and oppressed seem to have practically the same signification as above.
Argent, five annulets, one within the other, azure, alternately oppressing a cross engrailed sable–Robert GIFFORD, Harl. MS., 6137. Or, five annulets, one within the other vert, embracing and depressed by a cross engrailed gules–Robert GYFFARD. Gules, a fesse ermine, depressed by a pale of the same within a bordure engrailed azure–SPONNE.
Another application of the word, but rarely and improperly used, is when a bend or chevron is broken. Dechausse, written also dehaché, (fr.): Dismembered. Decked: sometimes said of feathers trimmed at their edges with a different tincture. Declinant, said to be used of the tail of a serpent hanging down. Decoupé, (fr.): with the edges cut out, or into shreds. Decrement in, and Decrescent See Moon. Deeble, or, as commonly written, dibble, is the gardener’s implement, and is borne for the sake of the name.
Azure, three deebles argent–DEEBLE.
Reindeer. Deer: the term deer(fr. daim, old fr. deym) is seldom used is blazoning, but it is convenient to employ it here as a general name under which to group several of the family of Cervidœ. First and most common is the stag itself(fr. cerf), but other names appear, frequently representing varieties of stags, and in some cases evidently used for the sake of the name, rather than for any difference which could be shewn in the drawing. They are Hart, Buck, Roe, Roebuck, Doe, Fawn, Hind(fr. biche), Brocket. The Brocket is a young stag up to two years, or(according to some authors) to three years, old; it becomes a Buck in its sixth year. With them may be classed the Reindeer(fr. renchier), which heralds distinguish from the stag by double attires, one pair erect, the other pendent, as shewn in the diagram in the margin. It may be added that the old name was simply cerf, and according to the rolls it is chiefly the head which appears on the ancient arms, but it will be observed that the two examples given are probably both allusive. In the first the biche(fr. for hind) probably refers to the name BECHE; and in the second the ‘hert’ or ‘hart’ distinctly alludes to the name HERTFORD.
Sire Johan de BECHE, de argent, a une bende de goules a iij testes de cerfs de or en la cantel un merelos de sable–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire de HERTFORD port d’argent a une fes sable a trois testes de cerfs d’or en la fes–Roll, temp. ED. III.
Taking the stag the typical beast of chase, it will be well here to note the terms which are especially applied in heraldry to the positions in which it may be represented. It may be statant(fr. arrêté), which means that it is standing still, with all its feet touching the ground; while statant at gaze, or standing at gaze, means that it is the same, and guardant(which is the term used of beasts of prey). Further, it may be represented as grazing, or more correctly(of stags) browsing, that is, with its head touching the ground, in the act of feeding; or at bay, i.e. with head downwards.
Argent, a stag statant gules–HOLME. Argent, a stag statant at gaze gules–GRYFFYDD GWR. Gules, a stag standing at gaze argent, attired or–JONES. Ermine, three stags at gaze gules–BLYTHE, Bp. of Salisbury, 1493-99. Azure, on a mount vert a hind grazing argent–HENDLEY, Lancaster. Or, two tilting spears in saltire sable, surmounted by a stag browsing proper; a chief azure …. –THORNHILL, Derby.
Or, again, a stag may be trippant, or tripping, that is passant, but in a leisurely manner(and when two, counter-trippant); while courant, or more properly, in full course(fr. elancé), means that the stag must be represented as if passing at full speed. Again, instead of the term rampant, which is applied to beasts of prey, the terms used for stags are springing, or salient.
DOWNES. Argent, a buck tripping upon a mound proper–STRAHAN. Vert, three roebucks trippant argent, attired or–TROLLOP. Azure, three stags trippant or–GREEN, Bp. of Lincoln, 1761-79. Azure, a reindeer trippant ermine–WALSTONE. Gules, a chevron between three hinds tripping or–HINDE. Ermine, three bucks trippant gules, on a chief indented, party per pale or and azure, a cross patonce counterchanged between two roses dexter gules, sinister or–Geoffrey BLYTHE, Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, 1503-31. Sable, two hinds counter-tripping, in fesse argent[or as elsewhere blazoned, Sable, two hinds counter-passant, the one facing to the sinister, surmounting the other in fesse argent]–COTTINGHAM. Sable, two bucks in full course or–BUCKSIDE. Azure, a stag in full course or, pursued by a brace of dogs argent, all bendwise and at random–YARDLEY. Vert, a stag courant argent, armed or–GETTHIN, co. Cork. Azure, a hart springing or–STRATHALLAN. Sable, on a mount vert, two stags salient affrontant argent, collared and chained or–FISHER, Bp. of Exeter, 1803: afterwards Bp. of Salisbury, 1807-25. … Two does counter-salient … –DRYHURST. Argent, a stag salient proper armed or–KIRCH. Sable, two greyhounds rampant, regardant, addorsed argent; in chief between them a fawn’s head cabossed or–BARNARD, Hants.
Or, lastly, the stag may be couchant, or more properly lodged, which latter is a term used specially of the stag. It may also be represented in a sitting posture, when the term sejant is applied, the same as that used for other animals.
Azure, (another sable,) a buck lodged argent–DOWNES, Cheshire. Vert, three stags lodged argent, attired or, and langued gules–ANDERSON. Vert, a hind couchant argent–PEYTON, co. Brecon. Argent, a stag sejant gules attired or, in the mouth a trefoil slipped proper–BOWEN.
Besides these the expressions applied to other animals are found sometimes used, e.g. unguled when the hoofs are of different tincture, armed(though this very improperly), to include both horns and hoods, and also langued; and so also the terms passant, guardant, and reguardant, and even rampant, are found.
Quarterly or and azure, four roebucks passant counterchanged–ROSINDALE, . Vert, a buck rampant proper–PARKER, Cheshire.
As already noted under attires the horns of the stag are considered as ornaments, and hence the term attired is more properly employed than either armed or horned. An old term for the stag’s horns is perches. The number of tynes or projections from the beam is sometimes given, if not it is quite optional. Also it may be observed that stags’ heads are very frequently adopted. In one case even the stag’s ears. When the front only of the head, with the attires, but without the neck, is shewn, it may be called a stag’s head caboshed(fr. rencontre); the French term massacre may also be used, though some think that only a portion of the cranium should in this case be shewn.
Or, a stag’s head couped and attired with six tynes on every horn sable–CALDER, Scotland. Azure, three stag’s heads couped argent, attired with ten tynes or–PORTEOUS, Scotland. Argent, a stag’s head erased, armed with three tines gules–CRAWFURD. Argent, a buck’s head cabossed sable, the tips of all the attires or–SNOKISHULL. Le Counte de WARTEMBERG, BARNARD, Hants, d’or a iij perches de deym de sable–Harl. MS. 6589. Azure, a bend between a deer’s head erased, and in base three crosses crosslet fitchy argent–PETREE. Argent, three brocket’s heads, couped azure collared or, thereto a bell affixed gules–HANNEY. Argent, three reindeer’s heads cabossed sable–BOWETT, York. D’azur, a trois massacres de cerf d’or–LA FERTÉ.
Badge of RIC.II. One of the badges of Richard II. was a white hart couchant beneath a tree proper, gorged with a crown and chained or. The annexed cut is from a carving in Westminster Hall, and a similar representation is seen in the glass in the chapel of S.Michael in Canterbury Cathedral. Deer-goat: a monstrosity. See Goat. Defamed, (fr. diffamé): a term applied to lion or other beast(and perhaps also to an eagle) which has lost its tail. Defamed looking backwards is given by some writers for counter rampant regardant, the lion being supposed to be flying from an enemy, but it is doubtful if any example exists. Defense, (fr.): used for the tusk of a boar, or of an elephant. Degrees=Steps, as a Cross of three degrees, more frequently termed grieces; or degraded. See under Cross, §15. Dejected: cast down, e.g. of a garb; or hanging down, e.g. of the head or tail of an animal.
Delf. Delf, or Delph, (plural delves). This ward(derived from the verb delve, to dig) is the name of a charge representing a shovelful of earth: the sides are sometimes drawn straight, sometimes curved inwards. When tenne, it is said to be one of the abatements, and it is then over the fesse point. See also Gad.
Argent, a chevron between three delves gules–DELVES. Or, a fesse wavy between three delves[elsewhere billets] sable–STANFORD.
The representations of this charge are sometimes very doubtful, and they have been blazoned cubes, gads(as in the insignia of the IRONMONGERS’ COMPANY), blocks, &c.: but in the following examples the cubes are no doubt intended for dice, and should be drawn as such.
MATTHIAS. Azure, a chevron between three dice sable, each charged with four spots–ENGLOWES, Somerset. Argent, a chevron between three dice sable, each charged with a cinquefoil[? 5 spots] of the first–FITZWILLIAMS, York. Gules, three dice argent, on each five(six ?) spots in front, two upon the top, and three on the sinister side, sable–MATTHIAS, London.
The last of those given is supposed to be allusive to the election of S.Matthias to the Apostleship.
MALLORY. Demi, or Demy, i.e. fr. for half: when applied to an animal, its upper or fore half is always intended; when any thing inanimate, generally the dexter half per pale. Demi-fleur-de-lis. The fleur-de-lis may be divided either per pale or per fesse; the former is usually intended. A demi-lion may be passant, rampant, or in any of the other positions. Demi-vol: one wing. See also demi-garter; and demi-hull under ship.
Argent, on a fesse gules between three demi-hinds couped azure as many bezants–HEYNES. Argent(another or), a demi-lion rampant gules–DENNETT; MALLORY.
Demi-vol, (fr.): signifies a single wing of a bird. Denché, (fr.): perhaps something between indented and dancetty. Denchure, (fr.): a fillet indented at the top of the shield, not borne in English, and very rare in French, arms. Denté, (fr.): with teeth, when of a different tincture. Dentelé, (fr.): indented. Denticulé, (fr.): used of a bordure with very fine indentations. Depressed by: sometimes used for debruised or surmounted by. Detriment, in; of the Moon, q.v. Develloped: unfurled, e.g. of a flag. Written also disvelloped, and divelloped. Device, (fr. devise): a motto, emblem, or other mark by which those who entered the lists were distinguished at tournaments, but especially a motto affixed to the arms, having some punning allusion to the name. It differed from a badge or cognizance only inasmuch as it was an arbitrary and generally temporary distinction, whereas the badge was often borne by members of the same house successively. Dexter: the right-hand side of the shield, being that to the left of the spectator. A bend, if not otherwise blazoned, is supposed to be a bend dexter, but a baston is often described as a dexter baston. The term is frequently applied to the hand.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, over all a dexter baston compony or and azure–Piers LUCIEN.
Dextrochère, (fr.): a dexter arm issuing from the sinister side of the shield, very frequently from clouds. It may be bare, or armed, or bearing weapons. It is only found in French heraldry. Dez: old fr. for dice. Diademé, (fr.): used of an eagle with a fillet of gold on its head. Diamond, (fr. diamant): this, the chief of precious stones, is sometimes represented in English, but more frequently in French, coats of arms, and with this may be associated both the crystal and the brilliant. The term, however, it may be added, has been chosen in the fanciful blazoning of the arms of peers in the seventeenth century for sable.
Argent, on a mount vert, a palm tree of the last thereon pendent a shield azure, charged with three mullets of the first pierced of the third; on a chief of the last a sun proper between two rings or, each adorned with a diamond–NORDEN, London, . Or, a chevron between nine links of a chain, each division consisting of three links sable. On a chief gules, a large diamond set in the midst of a triangle within a double row of brilliants proper–MIGNOT. Argent, on a fesse gules, three Crystals …. in a bordure ermine–BOUSALL, Co. Cardigan. De gueules, à trois diamants en lozanges tailleés a facettes d’argent, en fasces–AFFAGARD, Normandie.
Diapered. Diapered, (fr. diapré): an ancient mode of relieving the plain tinctures of fields and charges by arabesque and other patterns, generally of a darker shade of the same colour, and left to the fancy of the painter or sculptor. Some species of diapering have been mistaken for fretty, as that on the tomb of Robert DE VERE, in the church of Hatfield-Broad-Oak, Essex. At the same time it appears to have been recognised as a mode of tincture, as in the following:–
Le Counte CHAUMPAINE, d’azur a une bende d’argent a custeres d’or diasprez–Roll, temp. HEN. III., Harl. MS. 6589. Le Counte DEL ILLE, de goules a treis barres dor diasprez–Ibid.
What is meant by diapers in the following arms as thus blazoned in Burke is not clear. Papworth suggests didapper, an aquatic bird.
Argent, on a chevron gules between three diapers azure, a crescent or charged with a mullet sable–BREDNELL, London.
Dibble. See Deeble. Dice. See Delf. Diffamé. See Defamed. Differences. See Cadency, marks of. Dimidiated, (fr. mi-parti) halved; applied to animals, birds(especially eagles), fleur-de-lis, &c., of which only one half is shewn, in consequence of the field being party per pale. When only two half-charges are joined together, e.g. a rose and pomegranate, they may be blazoned as a demi-rose conjoined with a demi-pomegranate. See arms of BILSON under Pomegranate, and of CINQUE PORTS under ship.
CAMPEGIUS. Party per pale argent, an eagle displayed sable dimidiated per pale, and argent a wolf salient sable–Laurence CAMPEGIUS, Bp. of Salisbury, 1525-34. Gules, an eagle displayed double-headed or, dimidiated with chequy argent and azure–SWEETMAN, co. Kilkenny. D’or, à l’aigle de l’empire mi-parti d’azur à la fleur-de-lis d’or–BASTARD, Berry.
The expression impaling arms by dimidiation, will be referred to under Marshalling, when the whole coat of arms, both of wife and husband, is dimidiated. Diminutive. See Ordinary. Dirk. See Dagger. Disarmed, (fr. desarmé and morné): rarely applied to lions without teeth, talons, &c., and eagles without claws, &c. Disclosed. See Wings.
Dish. Dish, or standish; this is represented as in the margin, in Bp. STANDISH’S arms, and the charge is also found blazoned as a platter. Though in the second example the charge is blazoned as a dish, it was probably intended for a bowl.
Sable, three dishes argent–STANDISH, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1518-35. Azure, three boar’s heads couped argent, within as many dishes or–BOLLES, Lincoln.
Dismembered. Dismembered, (fr. demembré, or dechaussé), is said by writers to be applied to beasts whose heads, feet, or tails are cut off, but left so near the parts whence they were severed that the outline of the animal remains the same, but the term has not been met with in actual use. The French term tronconné, or trononné, is said to be applied to various charges, and even to ordinaries when so severed. See Cross, §7.
Or, a lion rampant dechaussé[or couped at all the joints], within a double tressure flory counter-flory gules–MAITLAND, Earl of Lauderdale. Or, a lion rampant couped in all the joints of the first–MAITLAND, Scotland. Gules, a lion rampant the head argent divided by a line indented or erased from the body or–GRACE. D’argent, au lion de sable accompagne de trois merlettes demembrées aussi de sable–PICARD, Bretagne.
Displayed. See Eagle; also Wings,
Distillatory 2. Distillatory: this device, borne by the DISTILLERS’ Company, and usually blazoned ‘a distillatory double armed,’ is represented on their arms as is the margin.
Azure, a fesse wavy argent, in chief the sun in splendour encircled with a cloud distilling drops of rain all proper; in base a distillatory double armed or on a fire proper, with two worms and bolt receivers of the second–DISTILLERS’ Company[Incorporated 1638].
Another ‘distillatory,’ or ‘still,’ is represented as the smaller engraving, and appears as the crest of the family of WYNINGTON, London. Distilling drops of blood: said sometimes of a part of an animal, e.g. under Deer, i.q. imbrued. Diverse: an irregular term applied to three swords or other charges posed in different directions, e.g. in arms of STAPLETON, Cumberland, under Point. Divise, fasce en(fr.)=bar. Dock-leaf: this leaf seems to be borne almost entirely by Scotch families, and is variously named edock(lat. rumex), burdock(lat. arctium), or simply dock leaf, or even bur leaf.
Argent, three dock-leaves vert–BRAINISS, Scotland. Argent, a bishop’s pall sable, between three dock-leaves vert–MARSHALL, Scotland. Argent, a saltire humetty azure; between an edock-leaf in each flank and base vert–MARISHALL, Queensbury. Argent, three burdock-leaves vert–NOBLE, Edinburgh. Or, a chevron ermine between three bur-leaves proper; (a crescent for difference)–BURWELL, Suffolk.
Doe. See Deer. Dog, (fr. chien): occurs very frequently in armorial bearings, and under a variety of names; the drawing in most cases being made generally to suit the dog described. The oldest name is the levrier, spelt leverer, and amongst the arms of the last two or three centuries the greyhound is the most frequently chosen, the bloodhound and the ratch-hound but rarely. The talbot is a hunting-dog, distinguished chiefly by the form of his ears; the modern mastiff occurs is one or two coats of arms, and we find also the spaniel and the terrier. The Alant, or Aland, [Span. alano., med. lat. Canes alani], a mastiff with short ears, appears to be used only as the supporter of the arms of Lord DACRE.
“About his char ther wenten white alauns.”–Chaucer, Knight’s Tale. 2450.
In the following examples it will be seen that besides the ordinary position of the dog, which is passant, it may be represented, sejant, rampant, salient, skipping, questing(i.e. pointing), courant, and in full cry. The ears may be of a different tincture, and it is frequently gorged or collared.
SUDBURY. Sire William MAULEVERER, de argent a iij leverers de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sir Perez BURDEUX, porte d’or ou ung lev’er de gules, ou le collere de sable ou le bordure de sable besante dor–Harl. MS. 6589. Per pale gules and azure, three hounds in full cry–TURNER[Lord Mayor of London, 1769]. Argent, a greyhound passant sable collared gules–HOLFORD. Argent, a greyhound salient party per long sable and of the first–DE LA FORDE, Iver, Bucks. Argent, a greyhound courant sable, in a bordure engrailed gules–Ralph BRIDEOKE, Bp. of Chichester, 1675-78. Vert, three greyhounds argent, gutté de larmes; on a chief or a fox passant gules–WELDISH, Kent[granted 1542]. Argent, a greyhound skipping in bend sable–ATTWOOD. Gules, two greyhounds salient affrontant or–DOGGET, Norfolk. Argent, on a chief dancetty sable three bezants; in base a greyhound courant of the second collared or–Offspring BLACKALL, Bp. of Exeter, 1708-16. Gules, two greyhounds salient counter-salient in saltire(the dexter surmounted by the sinister) argent, collared of the field between three fleurs-de-lys two and one; in chief a stag’s head couped attired with ten tynes or–UDNEY, Scotland. Sable, a bloodhound passant within a bordure engrailed argent–SUDBURY. Azure, three bloodhounds argent–RAGON. Argent, a ratch-hound courant between three hunting-horns sable–FORRESTER, Dundee. Argent, a talbot passant gules–WOLVESLEY, Suffolk. Argent, a talbot passant sable eared and collared or; to the collar a ring of the second; on a chief indented azure three crosses crosslet of the third–KENE, Norfolk. Sable, three talbot’s heads erased argent langued gules–Joseph HALL, Bp. of Exeter, 1627; afterwards of Norwich, 1641-56. Or, a fesse wavy, between three talbots questing sable–ALLEN, Kent. Azure, a talbot passant argent collared gules lined or; at the end of the line a knot–BURGOYNE. Azure, a talbot seiant within a bordure engrailed azure–Simon SUDBURY, Bp. of London, 1362; afterwards Abp. of Cant., 1375-81. [From glass at Trinity Hall, Cambridge.] Argent, on a fesse between two mullets in chief gules, and a dove in base azure, a mastiff’s head couped of the field–FUDDIE, Scotland. Argent, a spaniel-dog passant proper; on a chief embattled azure, a key palewise, the wards upward between two crosses crosslet or–MAIRE. Azure, a chevron argent between in chief two garbs or, and in base a spaniel passant proper; in the centre chief point a cross crosslet fitchy of the second–BURDEN. Gules, a fesse ermine between three water-spaniels argent, each holding in the mouth a birdbolt or–RIGGS, Lincoln. Sable, a chevron ermine between three terriers argent–BUTHER. Sable, a chevron between three spotted dogs of the second–HARTHAM, co. Leicester.
Dog-fish. See Shark. Dog-hook. See Horse-picker. Doloire, (old fr.): the head of an adze, without the handle. Dolphin, (fr. dauphin): the Dolphin, which is not a true fish at all, according to the system of naturalists, was considered by the older heralds as the chief of fish, just as the lion was the chief of beasts, and the eagle the chief of birds. It is even used in arms when it is supposed to be a play upon the name of fish, e.g.
Azure, a fesse wavy or between two crescents in chief, and a dolphin in base argent–FISH, Kempton, Middlesex. Gules, a dolphin or; a chief ermine–FISHER, Whitlingham, Norfolk. Azure, a dolphin embowed between three ears of wheat or–John FYSHAR, Bp. of Rochester. [From a facsimile of a Parliament Roll, 1515.]
In the Arms of the FISHMONGERS’ Company of London, both the Dolphin, and the Lucy, or pike, are borne-intended, no doubt, the one as the type of the sea-fish, the other of those of fresh-water. It is probably due to the same reason that several Lord Mayors, who were members of the Fishmongers’ Company, bore the dolphin in their arms; and perhaps also why some seaport towns also bear it, e.g. BRIGHTON.
Azure, three dolphins naiant in pale argent, finned and ducally crowned or, between two pair of lucies in saltire, the sinister surmounting the dexter proper; over the nose of each lucy a ducal crown of the third; on a chief gules three pair of keys endorsed in saltire or–FISHMONGERS’ COMPANY. Gules, a fesse or between three dolphins embowed argent–Sir William ASKHAM, Lord Mayor of London, 1404. A chevron between three dolphins embowed–Sir John RAINWELL, Lord Mayor of London, and Fishmonger, 1426.
The badge of the County of Dauphiné in France appears from the thirteenth century onwards to have been a Dolphin, an early example of ‘Armes parlantes.’ It was subsequently borne by the Dauphins, who were sty ed Lords of Auvergne. In the fourteenth century the title of Dauphin being adopted as the style of the eldest son of the King of France, the charge frequently appears. The Arms of the Dauphin, son of Louis XIV., represent in the third and fourth quarters a dolphin, while the crown which serves as the crest is ornamented also with dolphins. The Dolphin is also used in other canting arms, besides those of the DAUPHIN of France, i.e. the Venetian family of DOLFIN, and the English families of DOLPHIN, DOLPHINLEY, DOLPHINTON, and Lord GODOLPHIN. Although the fish is in reality straight it is always represented embowed, i.e. curved, and this term is often added in the blazon; in more recent drawing it is represented with a double curve, i.e. bowed embowed, though the terms are not used. It is blazoned either hauriant(i.e. upright), or naiant, i.e. in fesse; sometimes also erect. It may be also vorant(i.e. swallowing a fish). It may be fimbriated or finned of a different tincture.
BARNARD. Le comte de FOREST, de goules a un dauffin de mer dor–Roll, temp. HEN. III., Harl. MS. 6589. Sire Johan de MAULEE de or, a une bende de sable, en la bende iij daufins de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sable, a dolphin haurient or–DOLFINTON. Azure, a fesse between three dolphins naiant argent–BARNARD, Essex[also LEMAN]. Argent, two dolphins haurient respecting each other sable, chained together by their necks, the chain pendent or[otherwise an anchor between two dolphins proper]–COLSTON, Essex. Per pale or and azure, two dolphins erect counterchanged; on a chief gules a covered cup between as many dovecots of the first–COTES, Lord Mayor of London, 1542. Gules, on a chevron engrailed argent, three dolphins embowed proper–Arms ascribed Ralph FLAMBARD, Bp. of Durham, 1099-1128. Sable, a dolphin embowed argent fimbriated or–JAMES. Argent, three dolphins haurient azure, finned or–GILROY, Scotland. Argent, a fesse gules oppressed with two dolphins haurient respectant in pale or, the space between them ermine–BUCKLAND. Argent, three dolphins haurient azure, finned or–GILROY, Scotland. Vert, three dolphins embowed naiant in pale argent–DOLFINLEY, Hants. Quarterly, first and fourth; azure, a dolphin embowed argent; second and third; argent, a cross engrailed sable, in dexter chief an eagle displayed gules–Richard FITZ-JAMES, Bishop of Rochester, 1497, of Chichester, 1504, and London, 1506-22. Argent, on a bend azure three dolphins of the field, [and Crest a dolphin embowed proper pierced through the sides with two fishing spears in saltire or]–William FRANKLIN, Hertfordshire, 1613.
Dolphins are also used very frequently both as supporters and crests. Domed. See Tower. Donjonné, (fr.): of a castle which has turrets. Door. See under porch of a church. Door-bolt. See Lock. Dorcers. See Water-bouget. Doric column. See Pillar. Dormant: sleeping, with the head resting on the fore-paws. Dorsed: shewing the back, particularly of a hand, and so contrary to apaumy. Dos a dos: old French term for endorsed. Dosser. See Water-bouget. Doubling: the lining of a mantle: if or, or argent, supposed to be of cloth of gold, or white fur. Dove, (fr. colombe): the Dove is very frequent device; sometimes the turtle dove and sometimes the ringed dove are specially mentioned. And also with the dove may be grouped the Pigeon, with its fellows the Stock-dove and Wood-pigeon. It is said to have been adopted as an emblem of purity, and sometimes it appears as the Holy Dove. The Dove is subjected to the usual terms expressing position, &c., applicable to birds(see eagle), but the more frequent are volant, close, rising, and often having an olive-branch or some sprig in the mouth, and in one case ‘displayed in a glory,’ and also nimbed. It may be, of course, also membered, legged, beaked, billed, &c., of a different tincture. It will be observed that the dove very frequently occurs in the arms granted to Bishops, and sometimes it is used evidently for the sake of the name.
COLUMBALL. Sable, three doves argent, beaked and membered gules, each holding on olive-branch proper–COLUMBALL[temp. RIC. II.] Gules, on a fesse argent, between three doves proper, as many crosses formé, of the field–Peter GUNNING, Bp. of Chichester, 1670; afterwards of Ely, 1675-84. Argent, on a chevron between three crosses formy gules three doves of the field–SANCROFT, Abp. of Cant., 1678-91. Argent, on a pale azure between two crosslets gules, a dove displayed in a glory issuing from a chief of the first–Anthony KITCHIN, Bp. of Llandaff, 1545-65. Azure, a cross patty between four doves argent–Thomas Dove, Bp. of Peterborough, 1601-30. Azure, on a chevron argent between three dove’s heads erased of the second, each bearing in its beak a flower, two roses gules, stalked and leaved proper–HOLBECK, Bp. of Rochester, 1544; Bp. of Lincoln, 1547-57. Argent, a cross gules between four doves, the dexter wings expanded and inverted azure–COLLEGE OF ARMS, or HERALDS’ OFFICE. Per fesse azure and argent, a pale counterchanged, three doves of the last, each holding in his beak an olive-branch or–TALLOW CHANDLERS’ Company, incorporated 1463. Barry, wavy of five argent and azure; on a mount vert in the centre a dove rising nimbed gold, between three fishes naiant or–John HILSEY, Bp. of Rochester, 1535-38. Argent, a cross azure between three ring-doves vert beaked and legged gules–DALTON. Argent, a chevron between three turtle-doves azure–WINTOUN, Strathmartine, Scotland. Gules, a cross engrailed between four stock-doves azure–ALBERY, Wickingham, co. Berks, 1590. Argent, three pigeons azure–MOMPESSON. Or, on a mullet sable a pigeon argent–DON, Ardonhall, Scotland. Azure, on a chevron or three wood-pigeons proper, each charged on the breast with an ogress; another chevron couped sable–PENFOLD, Cissbury, Sussex. Argent, a chevron sable between three wood-doves proper–SCARELL, Thanks, Cornwall; confirmed, June 16, 1602.
Dove-cot. Dove-cot, or Dove-house: this is represented usually as in the margin, but other forms are found.
Vairy argent and sable, two bars or; on a chief of the last three dove-cots gules–LYDCOTTE, Oxon. Sable, a chevron or between three dove-cots argent–SHAPCOTT, Devon. Sable, three dove-houses argent–SAPCOTTE, co. Huntungdon, Hertford, Cornwall, &c.
BROMLEY. Dovetailed: a line of partition of recent origin, derived from the form well known is carpentry. Edmondson says that it was first introduced into English heraldry in 1720. Some writers have used the term lambeauxed, lambeau being the old French for the label, q.v.
Quarterly per pale dovetailed, gules and or–BROMLEY, Horse-heath, Cambridgeshire. Per bend sinister dovetailed or and azure, a lion rampant double queued ermine–STUCKEY. Per chevron dovetailed or and vert; three lions rampant counterchanged–RIPLEY, Westminster, granted 1742. Argent, a pelican in piety wings expanded proper; a chief dovetailed gules–VOGUALL, London.
Downset: a corruption probably of Dancetty, q.v. See also bend and chevron. Dragon. See Griffin. Dragon’s head. See Tenné. Dragon’s tail. See Sanguine. Drake. See Duck. Draught in: said of a bow and arrow. When in full draught, the bow is bent, just as if the arrow is about to fly. Drawing-board. See Grose. Drawing-iron. See Wire-drawing iron. Drinking-pots. See Cups. Drops. See Gouttes; but the term has been used erroneously for the ermine spots. Ducally gorged. See under Collar and Crown. Ducipers See Cap of maintenance. Ducks, (fr. canard): We find this very large family(anatinœ) represented in heraldry under several names. The duck proper, as also the drake. The shield-drake, or sheldrake, as it is written(anas tadorna). The wild-duck(anas boschas), with the teal(anas crecea) and the mallard. What is meant by the sea-teal is not certain. The sholarde, or shoveller(anas clypeata) may be distinguished by two small tufts of feathers, one on the back of the head, another on ther breast.
LANGFORD. Argent, a fesse gules between three ducks azure–CARTHEN. Argent, a fesse gules fretty or between three ducks sable–HANKINSON, Middlesex. Sable, a duck argent beaked or within a bordure engrailed of the last–MORE. Gules, a fesse between three drakes argent–Philip ap RHYS. Argent, a chevron sable between three drakes azure, beaked and membered or–YEO. Argent, on a fesse gules, between three drakes proper, a rose or–DRAX Priory, Yorkshire. Argent, on a chevron gules three sheldrakes of the field; on a canton of the second a rose or–SHELDON, Bp. of London, 1560; Abp. of Cant. 1663-77. [Founder of the Sheldonian Theatre; arms granted 1660.] Azure, a fesse erminois between three sheldrakes proper–JACKSON. Gules, a fesse between three sheldrakes argent–JACKSON(Bart. 1660). Azure, a chevron between three wild ducks volant argent–WOLRYCH, Salop. Quarterly per fesse indented sable and argent, in the first quarter a mallard of the last–BRESSY, Cheshire. Argent, a chevron sable between three mallards proper–Joseph HENSHAW[Bp. of Peterborough, 1673]. Per chevron gules and sable, in chief two teals argent, in base a fish or–COBB, Norfolk. Argent, a sea-teal gules winged or–ELCHAM. Gules, a shoveller argent. Crest: a demi-shoveller argent–LANGFORD, London. Sable, a shoveller argent–POPLER. Gules, a fesse between three shovellers argent–William JACKSON, Bp. of Oxford, 1812-15. Azure, three shoveller’s heads erased or–Edmund LACY, Bp. of Hereford, 1417; afterwards Bp. of Exeter, 1420-55. Quarterly, first and fourth; argent, a chevron sable between three mallards proper; second and third; argent, a cross between four fleurs-de-lys sable–HENSHARD, Bp. of Peterborough, 1663-79. Gules, a bend nebuly between two shovellers argent–READE, Oxon.
The Muscovy duck(cairina moschata) and the smew(mergellus albellus) are found named. The white nun us another name for the smew, white the term cannet(fr. canette) seems to be an old heraldic name for a duck, which is to be represented drawn in profile, and is to be used when several appear in the shield.
Argent, a chevron azure between three muscovy ducks proper–STOCK. Azure, a smew or white nun proper–ABNOTT. Argent, a chevron gules between three cannets sable–DUBISSON. Argent, in chief two cannets, and in base an annulet gules–KENNAWAY, Scotland. Argent, seven cannets, 3, 3, and 1 sable–CANNETON.
Duke(from latin, dux; fr. duc,) is the highest title recognised in the British peerage. Whatever may have been the date of the introduction of the term in foreign countries, and however ancient the name, and whatever be its origin, the chief fact to be recorded is that the first dukedom created in England was that of Cornwall, which king Edward III. in the eleventh year of his reign, A.D. 1337, conferred upon the Black Prince his son, since which every eldest son of a sovereign has been duke of Cornwall from his birth. A special Coronet q.v. is assigned heraldically to the title. Dyke. See Wall.
Bacchus faces. See Faces, Backgammon Table: this singular device is borne by the following family.
Azure, three pair of backgammon table open of the first, pointed argent, edged or–John PEGREZ.
Badelaire, (fr.): a broad-bladed sword, or scimetar, slightly curved. The sabre comes nearest to it. Badge, or Cognizance: a mark of distinction somewhat similar to a crest, though not placed on a wreath, nor worm upon the helmet. They were rather supplemental bearings quite independent of the charge of the original arms, and were borne on the banners, ensigns, caparisons, and even on the breasts, and more frequently on the sleeves of servants and followers. The badges borne by the Kings of England are very numerous, and are to be found on tombs, carvings, embroidery, stained glass, and paintings. The earliest which can be any way reckoned as a badge, is the Planta genista, or Broom; and of the others, of which a list is given, it must be admitted that several rest upon solitary instances, or on the authority of the writers whose names are appended.
STEPHEN. A Sagittary? HEN. VI. Antelope collared and Ostrich feathers(Guillim). chained. HEN. II. Escarbuncle(Mackenzie). Two feathers in saltire(MS. Bib. Sword and olive-branch(Cotton). Reg.) RIC. I. Star within crescent(Great Spotted panther passant guard. Seal). (MS. Harl.) Star and crescent separate(Great YORK. Seal). A white rose. Armed arm holding lance(Cotton). White rose en soleil(MS. Bib. Reg.). Sun on two anchors(Guillim). ED. IV. Falcon within fetterlock JOHN. Star within crescent(Silver (ironwork) penny). Bull sable[for Clare]. HEN. III. Star within crescent Dragon sable[for Ulster]. (Great Seal). Sun in splendour(Baker). ED. I. Rose, stalked(MS. Harl). White hart. ED. II. Hexagonal castle(Great White wolf(MS. Lansd.) Seal). ED. V. Falcon within fetterlock ED. III. Rays from clouds(Cam- (painting). den). RIC. III. Rose and sun separate Stump of tree(MS. Harl.) (Great Seal). Ostrich feathers(MS. Harl.) Falcon with maiden’s head(Sculp- Falcon. ture). Griffin(Private Seal). TUDOR. Sword and three crowns(MS. Red and white roses united. Harl.) Roses separate and crowned. RIC. II. Sun in splendour(MS. Portcullis. Harl.) Fleur de lis. Sun behind cloud(effigy). HEN. VII. A red dragon (Baker). A branch of broom(?) (effigy). Hawthorn bush crowned(glass). White hart couchant. Dun cow(Baker). Stump of tree. Greyhound courant(for Beaufort). White falcon(Hollingshed). HEN. VIII. Greyhound courant. LANCASTER. ED. VI. Sun in splendour(Cotton). Red rose. MARY. Double rose impaled with a Red rose en soleil. sheaf of arrows within a semi- Collar of SS. circle(MS. in Coll. of Arms). HEN. IV. A genet(on his tomb). Rose and pomegranate, Eagle displayed(ibid.) ELIZABETH. Harp crowned[for Tail of a fox pendent(Camden). Ireland]. Crescents(Hollingshed). A rose. Panthers and eagles crowned(MS. STUART. Harl.) Roses united[for England]. HEN. V. A beacon inflamed. Fleur de lis[for France]. Antelope gorged with a crown. Thistle, leaved[for Scotland]. Swan gorged with a crown. Harp[for Ireland].
The above representative badges for the four kingdoms were continued by the House of BRUNSWICK and in George the Third’s reign(i.e. 1801) they were settled by sign manual, the old badge for ENGLAND, namely, the Cross of S.George, being retained in the national banner of the Union Jack(q.v. under Flag).
A white rose within a red one, barbed seeded, slipped and leaved proper, and ensigned with the imperial crown, for ENGLAND. A thistle, slipped and leaved proper, and ensigned with the imperial crown, for Scotland. A harp or, stringed argent, and a trefoil vert[i.e. shamrock] both ensigned as before, for Ireland. Upon a mount vert, a dragon passant, wings expanded and endorsed, gules, for Wales.
Crown Keeper’s Badge. Certain OFFICERS also wore badges; thus: Crown-keepers, or yoemen of the crown, bore on their left shoulders a crown, which, under the Tudor sovereigns, surmounted a rose. Four examples have been noticed on brasses: one of them is in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, from which this illustration is taken. From about the time of Richard II. badges have been occasionally borne by SUBJECTS. This practice is alluded to by Shakspere, who mentions bath the cognizance and the crest.
Old Clifford.–Might I but know thee by the household badge. Warwick.–Now by my father’s badge, old Nevil’s crest, The rampant bear chained to the ragged staff, etc.
The PERCIES have a crescent for their badge, and the VERES used a mullet.
Brass of LADY PERYENT. Badges are frequently represented on brasses, and often beneath the feet. Occasionally a badge was engraved on the dress; thus a swan(or as some say a pelican) is embroidered on the collar of Lady Peryent, 1415, as represented on the brass in Digswell church, Herts. The Hame of Saint-John will be found in its alphabetical order, and the cognizances of several other families under Knots. Another class of distinguishing marks may also be included under the head of badges, though not heraldic badges, namely, those connected with TRADE. The theory of the grant of armorial bearings was such that engagement in commerce was incompatible with the bearing of arms, which was permitted only to gentleman; and this was strictly the case throughout the middle ages. Still the merchants had their badges; the Guilds and Companies, of which the great London Companies are the survivors, had their distinctive marks or devices, and no doubt it is these which in later years, when the dignity of successful commerce came to be recognized, were incorporated into the arms of their companies. Similar also were the Merchants’ Marks, and these will be noted in their place. Lastly, there were the signs, i.q. ensigns, of the chief houses of trade, by which the house was known, e.g., at the “Bible and Crown in Fleet-street.” With scarcely an exception(and those mostly cases of revival) these signs have been only retained by inns and hostelries. Badger, (fr. blaireau): in blazon this is often called a Brock, and occasionally a Gray.
Or, a badger passant sable–BADGER. Or, on a fesse sable between three brocks passant proper two cinquefoils pierced argent, on each foil an ermine spot–James BROKS, Bp. of Gloucester, 1554-8. Argent, three brocks proper–BROCK. Argent, a chevron between three badger’s legs erased sable–YARMOUTH.
Hare playing on bagpipes. Bagpipes are only named in connection with the hare playing on them.
Argent, three hares sejant playing upon bagpipes gules–HOPWELL, Devon. Argent, three hares sejant gules, playing upon bagpipes or–FITZ-ERCALD, Derby.
[The illustration of a hare playing upon the bagpipes is from MS. Harl. 6563, written in the fourteenth century.]
Bague, (fr.): a gem, or finger-ring. Bagwyn: an imaginary beast like the heraldic antelope, but having the tail of a horse, and long horns curved over the ears, was the dexter supporter of the arms of CAREY, Lord Hunsdon. Baillonné, (fr. baillon: a gag). Of animals when they have a baton in their mouth. Balances, a pair of, (fr. balance): besides appearing in the arms of the Company of BAKERS both of London, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Exeter(in which they are sometimes blazoned as a pair of scales), the following may be noted.
Azure, a pair of balances within an orle of eight estoiles or–STARR. Azure, a pair of balances supported by a sword in pale argent, hilt of pomel or, within a balance of the last–JUSTICE, Scotland.
Balcanifer, or Baldakinifer: the standard-bearer of the knights Templars. Baldcoot. See Coot. Baldrick. See Belt and Bend.
Bag of madder. Bale, or bag: a package of merchandise corded: one containing silk occurs in the arms of the Company of SILKMEN, while a bag of madder occurs in that of the DYERS. Madder was a plant, much used in dyeing, and is named but in this one instance. It is to be noted especially that the cords are of a different tincture from the rest. The bale, or bag, is to be distinguished from the bundle, or hank(e.g. of cotton, silk, &c.)
Argent, a ship of three masts in full sail on the sea in base, all proper; on a chief or, a bale of silk corded proper, between two bundles of silk pendant of the last–Company of SILKMEN, London[Inc. and arms granted, 1631]. Sable, a chevron engrailed argent, between three bags of madder of the last, corded or–Company of DYERS[Inc. 1471].
Balista, See Sling. Ball. See Fire-ball. Balm: this plant, the common balm(melissa) of our fields, seems to be used only in a canting coat.
Argent, three sprigs of balm flowered proper–BALM.
Bandé, (fr.): for bendy. Bande, (fr.): for a bend dexter. Banded, (empoigné): is used when two or more objects(e.g. a garb or branches of a tree) are bound together with a band of a different tincture. Banderolle, (fr.). See Flag.
Banner. Banner, (old fr. ban, also baniere): a kind of flag painted or embroidered with arms, and of a size proportioned to the rank of the bearer. The banner of an emperor is prescribed to be six feet square, that of a king five feet, that of a prince or duke four feet, and that of a nobleman of any rank from marquess to baron three feet, that of a Knight banneret was still smaller. Whether these rules were at any time strictly observed is very doubtful. Banners were often(but not, it would seem, until a rather late period) fringed with the principal metal and colour of the arms. The chief distinction between the term banner and other flags such as standards, pennons, &c., is that it is square(or nearly so), while the others are, as a rule, elongated. See under Flag. The Funeral banner, or Banneroll, was a square flag whereon the arms of the deceased, and those of his ancestors, were painted, with crest of coronet, but without helmet, mantle, or supporters. The colour of the banner itself follows the same rules as that of the grounds of achievements. It was usually fringed with the principal metal and colour of the arms. The great banner, used at funerals, contained all the quarterings of the deceased, occupying the entire field, the edge being fringed. Funeral banners are not restricted to Knights banneret and persons of higher rank, but may be carried at the interment of gentleman bearing arms, and even at funerals of women. The Beauseant, or Ancient, was the name of the banner of the Knights Templars in the thirteenth century, though it might be described as an oblong flag, per fess, sable and argent, one of the longer sides being affixed to the staff.
Le baucent del HOSPITALE, de goules a un croyz d’argent fourme.–Le baucent[another MS. Le Auncient] del TEMPLE, dargent, al chef de sable a un croyz de goules passant–Roll, temp. HEN. III.
The Military Banners most frequently borne in the English army during the middle ages(besides those of Knights bannerets and other noblemen) were those embroidered with the arms of the sovereign, or with the legendary arms of SS.George, Edmund, and Edward the Confessor, patrons of England. The military banner might contain quarterings, but not impaled arms.
A red banner, charged with the symbol of the Holy Trinity, was borne at the battle of Agincourt, A.D. 1415. The banner of S.John of Beverley was borne in the English army 24 Edw. I. (1295) by one of the vicars of Beverley college. S.Cuthbert’s banner was carried in the English army by a monk of Durham in the wars with Scotland, about 1300; and again in 1513.
The Oriflamme was the military banner of the French army, being derived from a banner anciently belonging to the Abbey of S.Denis, near Paris. It was charged with a saltire wavy, with rays issuing from the centre crossways, and from these rays the name auriflamme was no doubt derived.
The oriflamme borne at Agincourt was(according to Sir N. H. Nicolas) an oblong red flag, split into five points.
The banner was used also as a charge, occurring generally hung from the walls of a castle, and the Paschal Lamb is usually represented carrying a banner.
Gules, on a banner or, an imperial eagle charged with an escutcheon argent, the staff held by a griffin segreant of the last–GARBETT. Quarterly, first and fourth gules, a banner displayed argent; thereon a canton azure charged with a S.Andrew’s cross of the second; second and third or, a cross moline azure within a bordure engrailed argent–BANNERMANN, Elsick. Azure, three banners bendwise in pale flowing to the sinister or–KINGDOM. Argent, on a cross gules a Paschal Lamb or, carrying a banner argent charged with a cross of the second–Hon. Society of the MIDDLE TEMPLE.
Banneroll(?). See Banner. Bar, (fr. fasce en divise; lat. fasciola): resembles the fess in form, but occupies about one-fifth of the field. Although practically a diminutive of the fess, it is not reckoned as such, but a distinct ordinary. It is seldom(and in such few cases there is a chief) borne singly, and consequently is not confined, like the fess, to the middle of the shield. It has two diminutives, the closet, which is half the bar, and the barrulet(fr. burèle), which is a quarter. As the bar occupies one-fifth of the field a greater number than four cannot be borne together. When three or four bars are borne in the same arms, they are, for the sake of proportion, drawn considerably narrower than one-fifth of the height of the field.
MAUDUIT. William MAUDYT,–d’argent a deus barres de goulz–Roll, temp. HENRY. III. Richard de HARECOURT,–d’or a deux barres de goules–Ibid. Sire Andreu le GRIMSTEDE, de goules a iij barres de veer–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Wary MARTIN, de argent a ij barres de goules besantes de or–Ibid. Monsire Hugh SEINTTLE, port d’asur a deux barres d’argent; au cheif de gules–Roll, temp. ED. II.
In bar, or barwise, signifies the horizontal arrangement of charges in two or more rows; the term in fesse being proper only when there is but one row, i.e. placed across the fess-point. Bar-gemel, or gemelle; bars-gemels are bars voided, or closets placed in couples(they derive their name from the Latin gemellus, double, or fr. jumelles), and with the old writers the word gemelle was used for bar-gemel. But two bars-gemels are not always distinguishable from four bars, nor three bars-gemels from six barrulets, nor four bars-gemels from eight. For the odd number the term barrulet must be used. Palliot fancifully describes bars generally as immolés, and the expression ‘bar and a-half’ is found in one roll of arms.
Tremon de MENYLL,–d’azur a trois gemelles, et ung cheif d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Roand le Connestable de RICHEMUND, de goules a ung cheif d’or, a deus gemeus de l’un en l’autre d’or–Ibid. Sire Wauter de HONTERCOMBE, de ermyne, a ij barres gymeles de goules–Roll, temp. EDW. II. Azure, a bar and a-half argent, in the sinister quarter a garb or–SCHEFFELD(Glovers ordinary).
And sometimes it appears that each bar of a bar-gemel was counted as a gemelle.
ERCALL. Argent, three bars-gemels sable–ERCALL. Sr Thom’s de RICHMOND port de gules le chef d’or ov quatre gemeus d’or–Harl. MS. 6589. Argent, three bars-gemels gules–BARRY, Earl of Barrymore, Ireland. Gules, three bars-gemels and a canton ermine–BARDWELL.
Bars like the fesse may be embattled, dancetty, nebuly, wavy, &c., and a shield may be divided per bar and per base bar, q.v.
LACY. Ermine, three bars wavy gules–LACY. [In Roll, temp. Edw. II. Sir Johan de LACY, oundee de gules et de ermine]. Argent, two bars embattled ermine–BURNBY, co. Devon. Argent, two bars counter embattled gules–JAMES, co. Essex. Gules, two bars dancetty or–SAMLER. Argent, two bars nebuly sable, a bend or–POWER, co. Surrey, 1601. Azure, two bars wavy or–Sir Walter de la POOLE.
N.B. In French heraldic works the word barre is used as equivalent to a bend sinister, and this is supposed in many cases to be a mark of bastardy, Hence the expression is often found of a bar sinister, meaning a bend sinister. The modern French equivalent for the bar, fasce en divise, means that it is a fesse of half its ordinary width. See also under Barbel. Barbican. See Castle. Barby, (fr. barbée). See Cross, §13. Barded, (fr. bardé): of a horse caparisoned. The barde was originally the armour-plating covering the chest of a horse in battle, but came in time to signify ornamental covering of any kind. Bark. See Boat. Barley. See Wheat. Baron and Femme are words employed in describing impalements of the arms of husband and wife; that on the dexter being the paternal achievement of the man, that on the sinister the family arms of the woman, See Marshalling. Barre(fr.)=a bend sinister[not bar]. Barrel, (fr. Barillet). See Tun. Barry, (in old fr. barré, sometimes burelé, in modern fr. fascé): denotes that the field is horizontally divided into a certain even number of equal parts. If the number of divisions were odd the same tincture would appear in chief and in base, and the pieces of the other tincture would be so many bars, or barrulets.
DE GREY. Richard de GREY, barry d’argent et d’azure–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Alayn de Fitz Brian, barree d’or et de gules–Ibid. Patrick de CHAURCY, burele d’argent et de goules–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Barry of six, ermine and gules–HUSSEY, Wilts. Barry of ten, argent and gules–BARRY, Lord Barry. Barry of ten, argent and sable–BARRALL. Barry of twelve, or and sable–BOTFIELD, Salop. Barry of twenty, argent and azure–BRUN. Per pale or and argent barruly wavy gules–Sire Richard de AUNTESHEYE. Barry dancetty azure and argent–TURBERVILLE.
The division of the shield into party-coloured pieces by means of lines is not unfrequent, and the barry is combined for the sake of variety with other line-divisions. The following will give some idea of the varieties.
Barry-bendy sinister. Barry bendy or Barry bendy lozengy may be employed when a field is divided bar-wise, each piece being subdivided bendwise also, the tinctures being counterchanged. Barry bendy sinister also occurs.
Barry bendy of six argent and gules–AMERY. Barry bendy lozengy argent and gules–QUARM, Devon. Bendy sinister and barry, gules and argent–WYER.
Barry indented and Barry dancetty have the lines drawn so that apex falls beneath apex.
Barry of four indented or sable or azure–Richard MITFORD, Bp. of Chichester, 1389, of Salisbury, 1396-1347. Barry indented, argent and gules–John BALUN. Barry dancetty of six azure and argent–TODENHAM.
Barry indented. Barry indented, the one in the other, may be blazoned Lozengy …. couped per fesse, or better still Lozengy …. parted barwise and counterchanged.
Barry of six argent and sable, indented, the one in the other–GUISE, or GYSE, Glouc. Barry indented, the one in the other, or and azure, on a chief gules, three cross crosslets of the first–MOUNTAINE, Westminster, 1613.
Barry nebuly. Barry nebuly, when the lines instead of being drawn straight across the shield are drawn as in the margin; and barry wavy, with the bars as shewn in previous page.
Barry nebuly of six argent and azure, on a bend gules a lion passant gardant or–HABERDASHERS’ Company. Arms granted in 1571. Barry nebuly of six, or and gules–DOLSEBY, London. Barry nebuly of six, or and sable–BLOUNT, Bart. 1642. Barry wavy of six, ermines and argent–MORRIS.
Barry pily. Barry pily: divided into an even number of pieces by piles placed horizontally across the shield. If the number of pieces were uneven, it would rather be called so many piles barwise, proceeding from the dexter or sinister side. It is difficult to find examples, as the proper position of the ordinary is upright.
Barry pily of eight, or and gules–HOYLAND, Linc. Barry pily of eight, gules and or–VANCE, Ireland.
Barry per pale counterchanged is when the field is divided into several pieces barwise, and by a party-line palewise the tinctures on each side of that line are counterchanged. For barry paly see billetty.
Barry of six, sable and or, per pale counterchanged–SCURFIELD. Barry of twelve, per pale azure and argent counterchanged–MOORE, Salop.
N.B. In modern French heraldic works barré seems to be used generally as the equivalent of bendy sinister, just as the bar is used for the bend sinister, as has already been noted. Barberry: one example only appears of this shrub(berberis), with its bright red berries, in allusion evidently to the name.
Argent, a barberry branch fructed proper–BERRY.
Barbed, (fr. barbé); bearded: an expression chiefly applied to the metal point of an arrow, sometimes also to the green leaves of a rose, when any of these are of a different tincture. By the French also to the gills of cocks, &c. A cross when ‘barbed’ is called a Cross barby.
Gules, three arrows argent, barbed or–Nicholas HALES. Argent, on two bars gules, three roses of the field, barbed vert, seeded or, two and one–ORLEBAR, Bedford. De gueules, a trois coqs d’argent, becqués, crêtes, barbés, et membrés d’or–SANDELIN, Artois.
Barbel, (fr. barbeau, lat. cyprinus); the fresh-water fish, so named from the barbs attached to the mouth; and with this may be classed the Tench(tinca vulgaris) as similar in character.
Sr John de BARE porte d’azure ov ij barbes d’or croisele d’or ov la bordure endente de gules–Falkirk, roll, Harl. MSS. Azure, semé of cross crosslets fitchy at foot or, and two barbels embowed and endorsed of the same, eyes argent–Arms of the duchy of BARRE, which are quartered by QUEENS’ COLLEGE, Cambridge. Argent, two barbels haurient, respecting each other sable–COLSTON. Borne also by families of BARWAIS, BARDIN, BARE, BERNARD, BURES, &c. Azure, a fesse, or, between three tenches argent–WAYTE, Norfolk. Borne by families of VON TANQUES and of Marshall TENCHE, Flanders.
The bar in French heraldry sometimes means the barbel, but generally the sea-fish so named(lat. sciœna).
Le Counte de Bar, d’azur, pudre a croisile dor a deux bars de mer–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Gueules, a un bar contourné d’argent, la tête surmountée d’une fleur-de-lis d’or–Ville dê BARFLEUR, Normandy.
Barnacle, or Barnacle goose, (old name Bernak); it is known now as the Cleg or Clark goose, perhaps the same as the Solan or Orkney goose; Anser bernicla is recognized by all naturalists.
Sire William BERNAK de argent a une fesse e iij bernaks de sable–Roll, temp. EDW. II. Sable, a barnacle goose argent; Azure, three barnacles argent–BARNACLE. Gules, a barnacle goose argent–BARNER. Argent(?), a chevron ermines between three barnacle birds close proper–WYKE.
Barnacle or Horse-barnacle: generally spoken of as a Pair of barnacles, and in a roll of Henry III. called Breys, is supposed to represent at instrument used by farriers(fr. morailles) to curb unruly horses. It is occasionally borne extended, that is, horizontally. With the French heralds this charge has caused much discussion. There broyes are borne by the family of BROYES(as well as by that of JOINVILLE and GOY), and have been supposed to be respectively architectural festoons, instruments for torture of criminals, hemp crushers, as well as the meaning given above.
WYATT. Gules, a barnacle argent–WYATT, Kent. Argent, three pair of barnacles, expanded in pale sable–BRAY, Cornwall. Argent, four bars wavy azure on a chief gules, three pair of barnacles or–SMITH, Suffolk.
The most celebrated instance of the barnacle expanded is the coat of the illustrious French family of Joinville, or as the English called it, Geneville.
JOINVILLE. Geoffrey de GENEVILE d’azure, a trois breys d’or au cheif d’ermyne ung demy lion de goules–Roll temp. HEN. III. Simon de GENEVILL a trois breys d’or, au chief d’argent ung demi-lion de goules–Ibid.
Baron: the fifth and lowest rank of the British peerage. The title, introduced into England immediately after the Norman conquest, was originally applied to all the Thanes(or feudal lords under the rank of earl) who held great fiefs of several Knights’ fees, but was subsequently restricted to those summoned by writ to parliament, a practice which dates from the reign of John. The first baron by patent was John Beauchamp of Holt, who was raised to the peerage by K. Richard II. in the eleventh year of his reign(Oct. 10, 1387) by the title of baron of Kidderminster. No other instance occurs until 10 Hen. VI. Barons are not recognised as part of the English nobility quâ Baron, i.e. Lord of the manor, unless they are duly summoned to be a Peer of Parliament; and before the reign of Charles II. barons, even though peers of the realm, were not allowed to wear coronets q.v., but only the crimson cap, with a plain gold band. Baronets may be distinguished as follows. I. Baronets of Great Britain: An order founded by King James I., May 22, 1611, ranking below that of a peer and above that of a knight. The dignity is bestowed by patent and is hereditary, but generally limited to the heirs male of the grantee. It was in the first instance bestowed upon knights and esquire(being duly qualified), each of whom stipulated to maintain thirty foot soldiers in Ireland at 8d. per diem for the term of two years. Upon the establishment of the order it was arranged that the number of baronets should never exceed two hundred, and that upon the extinction of a baronetcy no other should be created to fill the vacancy; but these regulations were soon dispensed with, and the number became unlimited. The qualifications required of those who were admitted into the number of baronets are thus described in the instructions of the royal founder to the commissioners, for the admission of proper persons into the order:–
“Provided always that you proceed with none, except it shall appear unto you upon good proof that they are men for quality, state of living, and good reputation, worthy of the same: and that they are at least descended of a grandfather by the father’s side that bore arms: and have also a certain yearly revenue in lands of inheritance of possession, one thousand pounds per annum de claro, or lands of the old rent, as good(in account) as one thousand pounds per annum of improved rents, or at the least two parts in three to be divided of lands to the said values in possession, and the other third part in reversion, expectant upon one only life, holding by dower or in joynture.”
The first baronet created was Sir Nicholas Bacon. The precedence assigned to baronets is before all knights bannerets, except those made by the king himself, or the prince or Wales under the royal banner in actual war, and next after the younger sons of viscounts and barons. The badge of baronetage, namely a sinister hand(q.v.) erect, open, and couped at the wrist gules(being the arms assigned to the ancient Kings of Ulster), was granted in 1612. It may be borne upon a canton, or upon an inescutcheon, which may be placed either upon the middle chief point or the fesse point, so as least to interfere with the charges composing the family arms. It should never be placed upon the intersection of two or more coats quartered, unless the baronet has two surnames, and bears the arms belonging to them quarterly. It the same year in which this badge was granted, King James knighted the heirs of all existing baronets, and ordained that their eldest sons might for the future claim knighthood upon attaining their majority. This privilege was abolished by George IV., but has since been restored, though never claimed. II. Baronets of Ireland: An order established by James I. in 1619. Their qualifications, privileges, and badge, are the same as those of the baronets of Great Britain. It is believed that this dignity has not been conferred since the union of 1801. III. Baronets of Scotland and Nova Scotia. An order similar to those before mentioned, projected by the same monarch, but founded by Charles I. in 1625, immediately after his accession. The object of this order was to encourage the plantation of Nova Scotia, in which colony each baronet had granted to him by his patent eighteen square miles of land, having a seacoast, or at least the rank of some navigable river, three miles in length, and an extent of six miles island. The arms of baronets of this order are not now distinguished by any badge, although one appears to have been in use until the year 1629, viz. a small shield argent charged with a saltire azure, in the centre of which upon an escutcheon or is the lion of Scotland within a tressure gules. No creations have taken place since 1707. Barrow: borne on the seal of DROITWICH(see Sword): also,
Sable, a hand-barrow between nine roses or–BEARWELL.
Barrulet, Barrelet, or Bracelet, and Barruly. The Barrulet is a diminutive of the Bar, of which it is one-fourth, that is to say, a twentieth part of the field; the closet being one half of the bar. It is never borne singly.
WACE. Argent, four barrulets gules; on a canton of the second a mullet of six points of the first–WACE. Azure, six barrulets gemel[=12 barrulets] and a chief or–MENELL, York. Argent, seven barrulets gemel azure[=14 barrulets]–INGERSALEM. Sable, eight barrulets gemel[=16 barrulets] and a canton or on two bars azure, as many barrulets dancetty argent. A chief indented of the second–SAWBRID, [Indented argent–BUCKTIN, York.]
Beyond this the term barruly[or barruletty, fr. burellé, old fr. burlé] is used by some writers is describing a field horizontally divided into ten or any higher even number of equal parts; practically, however, the term barry might be used in most cases.
Patrik de CHAURCY, burele d’argent et de goules–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Counte DE LA MARCHE, burule de une menue burlure dargent et de azur–Another Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sire Robert de ESTOTEVILE, burlee de argent e de goules a un lion rampand de sable–Roll, temp. ED. II.
Barry. See under Bar. Bartizan. See Castle. Base: 1. (fr. bas de l’ecu) The lower part of the shield, hence in base means that the charge is so to be placed. 2. Base-bar, or Baste: a portion of the base of a shield, equal in width to a bar, parted off by a horizontal line. It is identical with the plain point, q.v. under Point. 3. For base in architecture see Pillar.
Argent, a lion rampant and a base indented purpure–John de SKIPTON, Harl. MSS. 1386.
Basilisk. See Cockatrice.
2.Wicker Basket. Basket, (fr. corbeille): there are several varieties of baskets found figured in coats of arms. 1. Ordinary or hand-baskets, sometimes termed wicker baskets.
Azure, three baskets or–GARDEN. Sable, three baskets[like fig. 1] argent–LITTLEBURY. Sable, three wicker baskets[otherwise dossers] with handles argent–Sir John LITTLEBORNE. Sable, a bend or, between three hand baskets argent–WOOLSTON, co. Devon. 1716. Gules, three covered baskets or–PENTNEY Priory, Norfolk.
Bread-basket. 2. In one or two cases Religious houses seem to have borne a kind of bread basket filled with loaves or wastel cakes.
Sable, three baskets full of bread argent–MIDDLETON Abbey, Dorset. Azure, three baskets or–GARDEN. Argent, two bars sable ….. a basket of bread(i.e. wastel-cakes) or on the sinister side–London, BETHLEHEM Hospital. Azure, a basket of fruit proper between three mitres or–JANE, Bp. of Norwich, 1499-1501.
Winnowing-basket. 3. Winnowing-baskets. These have various names, that of Vane of Vannet being the commonest. But the same kind of basket, which has, when badly drawn, been mistaken for an escallop-shell, is also termed Fan, Fruttle, and Shruttle,
Sire Robert de SEVENS de azure, a iij vans de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. [N.B. The brass of Sir H. de Septvans in Chartham Church, Kent(ob. A.D. 1306), has the three vanes only, and not seven, as might have been expected from the name.]
The four implements, viz. prime, iron, cutting-knife, and outsticker, used in basket-making are represented on the insignia of the Basket-makers’ Company:–
Azure, three cross-baskets in pale argent between a prime and an iron on the dexter, and a cutting knife and an outsticker on the sinister of the second–BASKET-MAKERS’ Company.
4. Fish-baskets. See Weel. Basnet, Bassinet. See Cap of Steel. Bat: This mammal, not infrequent in English arms, is usually represented displayed; its proper tincture is sable. Blazoned sometimes by the older name of rere-mouse,
“Some war with rere-mice for their leathern wings”–SHAKESPERE, Mids. Night’s Dream.
STAININGS. Bats’ wings are also borne.
Argent, a bat displayed proper–STAININGS. Or, a bat volant gules; a rere-mouse vert–ATTON. Or, a bat’s wing gules, surmounted of another azure–ALDEN.
Bataillé, (fr.): of a bell when the clapper(batail, old fr. for battant) is of a different tincture. Bath, Order of the. See Knights.
REGINALD, Earl of Cornwall. Baton, (fr. bâton), (though the old fr. Baston, Battoon, or Batune, is used almost entirely for the bendlet). It resembles the diminutive of the Bend sinister(and hence often called a sinister baton) is general form, but usually couped at both extremities. The sinister baton was in later times made to be a mark of the illegitimacy of the first bearer, and to be of metal when assigned to the illegitimate descendants of royalty, but in every other case to be of colour, even though placed upon another colour. Accordingly, the following arms were assigned by modern heralds:–
Gules, two lions passant guardant[HENRY I.] with a batoon sinister azure–REGINALD, base son of Henry I., created Earl of Cornwall,
It was said that the baton should not be laid aside until three generations had borne it, and not then, unless succeeded by some other mark assigned by the king of arms, or unless the coat was changed. Dexter batons are but rarely met with. Sometimes a small baton appears in the mouths(fr. baillonné) or between the paws of animals, such as lions, dogs, bears, &c., but this almost entirely in crests.
Quarterly vert and or a couped baston of the second–DE HISPANIA. Gules, on a bend engrailed or, a baston azure–ELLIOT(1666). Gules, a chevron raguly of two bastons couped at the top argent–Christopher DRAIESFIELD, Harl. MS. 1386. Argent, a lion rampant azure, a dexter baton compony or and gules–Sir Richard de DOCKESSEYE. Argent, a lion rampant gules, over all a dexter baston compony or and azure–Piers LUCIEN. Argent, a lion rampant sable holding a baton in pale azure–WILLISBY.
In the sense of an ordinary bendlet, (q.v.)
Monsire JEFFREY DE CORNEWALE, d’argent une lyon de gules couronne d’or: une baston de sable charge de trois mullets d’or–Roll, temp. ED. III.
Baton-cross. See Cross, §8, 31. Battelly, (fr. bastille) or battled. See embattled.
Battering-ram. Battering-ram, (fr. bélier): this military charge seems to occur only in the arms of one single family, but occurs also as a crest.
Argent, three battering-rams barwise proper, headed azure, armed and garnished or–BERTIE.
Battle-axe. See Axe. Battled. See Embattled. Baudrick, (fr. Baudrier): a sword belt, possibly the prototype of the Bend. Bay, At Bay. See Deer. Bay. See Colour. Bay leaf. See Laurel.
Beacon. Beacon, (A.-Sax. becn, fr. phare): an iron cage or trived, containing blazing material, placed upon a lofty pole served to guide travellers; or to alarm the neighbourhood in case of an invasion or rebellion. The cressets, or lights anciently used in the streets of London were similar in form.
A beacon or, inflamed proper–Badge of Henry V. Sable, three beacons with ladders or, fired proper–DAUNT. Azure, three beacons with ladders or, fired proper–GERVAYS.
Beads. See Rosary. Beaked, (fr. becqué): of an eagle, or other birds, griffins, and the like, when the beak is of a different tincture. Beaker. See Ewer. Beam. 1. See Attire; 2. See Anchor; 3. See Sun. Beans, (bean-cods, bean-pods, and sheaves of beans), represent the common bean(faba vulgaris), and their exact position is usually given.
Azure, three beans or–MERTON. Argent, three bean-cods transverse the escutcheon proper–HARDBEANE. Gules, three bean-cods pendent or–BEANE. Argent, a chevron gules, between three bean-pods vert–RISE, Cornwall. Argent, a chevron between thee sheaves of beans sable–BLAKE, Northumberland.
Bear, (fr. ours): frequent in German arms, and in some instances in Scottish arms, but comparatively rare in English arms, though not unfrequent as a crest, and sometimes the head or jambs are chosen for the latter apart from the body. In one coat of arms Sea-bears are named: it is not clear what is meant, possibly Seals, but more probably Polar-bears. The Canton of Berne in Switzerland, as well as the Abbey of S.Gall, exhibit the bear in their insignia. Bears appear also as supporters.
BERNARD. Argent, a bear rampant sable, muzzled or–BERNARD. Sire Richard de BARLINGHAM de goules a iij ours de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Gules, on a bend or a bear passant sable–Canton of BERNE. Argent, a bear erect sable–Abbey of ST.GALL. Azure, a fesse or; in chief a bear’s head proper muzzled and ringed of the second–BARING[Bp. of Gloucester and B., 1856; of Durham, 1861-79]. Per chevron sable and argent three sea-bears counterchanged–FLOWERDEW, Norfolk.
Bearded, or aulned. See Wheat. Bearing: an expression very frequently used to signify a charge, or anything included within the escutcheon. The old French formula of speaking of the charges upon arms was ‘il porte.’ Beasts, (fr. animaux): the ordinary beasts of the field, with others included under Mammalia, add considerably to the charges of Coats of Arms, as will be seen by the printed Synopsis. A general classification is given there, as a minute and accurate classification would be out of place. It will be found that there are between eighty and ninety varieties to be more or less distinguished both in the drawing and in the blazoning amongst modern coats of arms, but in the earlier arms there were few varieties. If, for instance, we take the wellknown roll of arms, temp. Henry III., containing over 200 arms, we find forty instance of the lion(including the leopard), and some few lioncels(as the lions are termed when there are several, or when they have to be drawn on a small scale); but beyond this, if we except an instance of boars’ heads(borne by Adam de SWYNEBOURNE), no other beast in represented. And when we take the roll of the siege of Carlaverock, temp. Edw. I., containing over 100 coats of arms, and a fine roll, temp. Edw. II., containing over 1,000 coats, and a third roll, temp. Edw. III., containing over 600, the sun total of the mammals to be added to the above list amounts only to six, namely, the bear, the greyhound, and the dolphin, and the heads of goats, stags, and wolves. In time, however, the tiger and the panther(with the lynx and ounce) were added to the lion tribe, as also the cat. Besides the greyhound, other dogs were chosen, viz. the bloodhound, mastiff, spaniel, and the ‘alant’ and ‘talbot.’ The stag, too, was no longer represented by only one variety, and only one name, for we find the buck, the doe, the roebuck, the hart, the hind, and the reindeer; while the boar is known as sanglier, grice, and marcassin. On account of the fur the weasel was prized, and this, with the ermine, the foine, and the marten, as well as the civet(or civet-cat), appear on the arms. For the skin, too, the otter and the beaver, and for its quills the porcupine, seem to have been sought after, and to have been selected for charges on arms. From the north, the polar bear and the seal, the whale and the dolphin; while from other parts, the elephant, the rhinoceros, the buffalo, the camel, the antelope, and the ibex, provided subjects for the arms. At home, the goat and the sheep(the latter with the varieties of the lamb, the ram, and the toison, or fleece), the bull(with the varieties of ox, cow, and calf), the horse, the badger, and the fox were also added to the list. Nor were lesser animals overlooked, e.g. the hare and the rabbit, the squirrel, the hedgehog, the mole, and the rat, and lastly, the reremouse, or bat. Beauseant. See Banner. Beaver, (fr. and lat. castor), occurs in the insignia of BEVERLEY, Yorkshire, and in other arms where the name suggests it; but it is used more frequently as a crest.
Vert, on a base barry of five argent and azure two beavers, rampant combatant or–Thomas BEVERIDG, co. Chester, 1595. Or, a fesse azure between lions rampant in chief gules, and a beaver passant in base proper–BEAVER. Argent, three beaver’s tails[erect] gules–BEAVER. Argent, a cross gules between four beavers passant proper–HUDSON BAY Company[Inc. 1670].
Beaver, or Beauvoir: the part of the Helmet which opens to shew the face. Bebally: a sword, now disused, for party per pale. Beckit: a bird resembling a Cornish chough, q.v.
BYE. Bee, (fr. abeille): is always represented flying, with wings extended, and generally upwards, and this is sometimes expressed by erect, but more correctly en arriere, i.e. flying away from the spectator. The Hornet also occurs on one coat.
Azure, three bees volant erect or–BYE. Azure, three bees volant en arriere argent–BYE. Sable, a chevron between three bees volant erect argent–SEWELL. Azure, on a fesse argent a bee volant arriere sable–DE VERTHON. Or, on a bend azure, three bees volant argent–BUTTERFIELD. Gironny of eight ermine and gules, on each of the last a bee volant argent–CAMPBELL, Gargamock. Sable, a hornet argent–BOLLARD.
ROWE. Bee-hive, (fr. ruche): this device was granted to a Cheshire family named ROWE during the Commonwealth, but was afterwards also granted to several other families. Both the bee and the bee-hive appear as crests.
Argent, a bee-hive, beset with bees diversely volant sable–ROWE. Argent, a bee-hive, beset with bees volant proper–TREWEEK, Cornwall. Ermine, a fesse sable between three bee-hives or–FRAYE. Argent, on a bee-hive sable a hart lodged argent, attired or–SANDELLAYER, Stafford.
Beech. Only one reference to this tree has been noticed.
Azure, an eagle displayed argent, in his beak a branch of beech or; on a chief of the last a rose between two crosses bottonny gules–BULLINGHAM, Bp. of Gloucester, 1581-89.
Beetle: possibly this is but an error of some writer, who has mistaken the flies for beetles(as the name of the bearer suggests); however, the stag beetles(lucanidœ of naturalists) occur.
Argent, a chevron vert between three beetles proper–MUSCHAMP. Per pale gules and azure, three stag beetle’s wings extended or–DOORE, Cornwall.
Beffroy, or Beffroy de vair: an old French term for vair. Belfry. See Bell. Belic: an old word, now disused, for gules.
Church Bell. Bell, (fr. cloche), or as it is sometimes called a Church bell, is a large bell of the usual form. Smaller bells of a different shape are attached to the legs of hawks and falcons, q.v., when they are said to be belled; also to necks of bulls, &c. (fr. clariné). When the clapper is of a different tincture it is to be so described(fr. bataillé). The cannon or ear may be also of a different tincture from the body or barrel of the bell.
Sable, three church bells argent–PORTER, Sable, a fesse ermine between three bells argent–BELL. Argent, three war bells gules–KEDMARSTON, co. Suffolk. Azure, a lion rampant guardant within an orle of bells argent, cannoned or–OSNEY, co. Lincoln. Sable, a doe passant between three bells argent–DOOBEL, Sussex, 1695. Argent, on a cross gules five bells of the first–SEDGEWICKE, Cambridge. Or, four bars sable; on three escutcheons argent as many church bells of the second, clappers of the first–HALL, Essex.
A belfry occurs as a crest to the family of PORTER, and in this a bell argent is represented as supported between two pillars roofed and spired or, and on the spire a vane of the last. Belled: is applied to a hawk, or falcon, having bells affixed to its legs(fr. grilletté); or to other animals, e.g. cows, sheep, &c. (fr. clariné). Bellows: these are of the usual form, and are borne with the pipes downwards.
Argent, three pair of bellows sable–SCIPTON.
Beloochee soldier. See Man.
Belt. Belt: this charge is but rarely borne, and usually only a small portion of the leather is shewn(as in the margin); hence it is often blazoned half a belt, and the buckles(fr. boucle) should be named as to position, tincture, &c. The belt worn over the shoulder, and crossing the chest and back, was termed anciently a baldrich or baudrick, and to the lower part was attached the sword. It is not borne by this name, but has been said, amongst other suppositions, to have been the origin of the bend.
Argent, a demy-belt fixed in fesse azure buckled edged and garnished or–BELTMAINE. Argent, three belts, the under parts couped in fesse azure, buckled and garnished or–NARBON. Gules, two pieces of belts[otherwise half-belts] palewise, in fesse, argent, the buckles erect in chief or–PELHAM.
COUGHTE? Bend, (fr. bande): the bend dexter is perhaps one of the most frequently used of Ordinaries, q.v., being a straight piece extending from the dexter corner to the opposite edge of the shield. It is said to derive its origin from the belt, baudrick or baldrick(Baltheus, Cingulum militare), which was once a mark of knighthood; other heralds, however, have seen in it the idea of a scaling-ladder. According to Legh and other heraldic writers, the bend should occupy one-third of the field when charged, and one-fifth when plain. In English arms the bend is always placed straight athwart the shield, and never bowed as in foreign arms: at the same time, in some late MSS. it is fancifully drawn with a curve, in order to represent the convexit
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