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Eagle, (fr. Aigle): the eagle being the recognized king of birds, it is natural that it should from a favourite device. With the Romans, it will be remembered, it was adopted as their ensign, no doubt as symbolical of the courage and power attributed to that bird. It is found very frequently in the earlier rolls of arms, and is very common throughout the Middle Ages. In the roll, for instance, of the time of Edward II., to which reference has already been made, over forty coats of arms bear eagles. In that, however, of Henry III. there are only two or three, and in that of Edward III. not so large a number in proportion. From the following selection it will be observed that amongst the earliest examples the beak and claws are blazoned of a different tincture from that of the body; and in Edward the Second’s reign we find the double-headed eagle, and in Edward the Third’s reign we get the term espanie, signifying displayed, or spread out; (conf. modern fr. épandre). The mention, too, of the eagles being tinctured barry implies rather that they were represented displayed, even where not so described.
John de BEAUCHAMP, noir ung egle d’argent, beke et les pees d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Dru de BARANTINE, noir a trois egles d’or–Ibid. Sir Johan de CASTRE, de sable a un egle barre de argent e de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire William de GRAUNSON, pale de argent e de azure a une bende de goules e iij egles de or–Ibid. Sire John PLUET, de or et un egle de goules a ij testes–Ibid. Monsire Edward de MONTHERMER, port d’or une egle espanie de vert beke et pedes gules–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de WANTY, port d’argenta une egle espanie d’asur beke et peds gules–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de SIGESTON, port d’argent a une egle espanie de sable a double teste beke et pedes de gules–Ibid. Monsire John CHANSCYRE, port d’azur a un egle barre di sis peeces d’argent et gules–Ibid.
Eagle Displayed. Wings elevated.
Eagle Displayed. Wings inverted. In later arms also, an eagle is more frequently rendered displayed(mod. fr. eployé). and it may be drawn in two different ways. The first figure shews an eagle with its wings elevated, which is what is generally intended by the phrase ‘an eagle displayed,’ and the second with its wings inverted. The difference appears, however, to be an accidental one. The term expanded is also found sometimes used, which implies, perhaps, that the wings are displayed more than usual. Unless otherwise appointed, the eagle is to be drawn with the head looking towards the dexter.
Or, an eagle displayed vert, armed sable–MONTHERMER. Or, an eagle displayed gules, armed azure–PEVENSEY. Or, an eagle displayed wings downwards sable–FREDERICK II., Emperor of Germany, and EDMUND, E. of Cornwall, son of Richard, the king of the Romans. Azure, an eagle displayed wings downwards argent, crowned or–(Part of the arms of) DIEPHOLZ. Argent, an eagle displayed reguardant sable armed or–BOKELAND. Argent, an eagle wings expanded sable, armed or–HILTOFTE. Azure, an eagle reguardant, wings expanded or armed gules–CANVILL.
But there are various terms which, though not confined to the eagle, are more frequently applied to it than to other birds, namely, as regards its wings, and the several positions in which it is represented. It may be with wings close, i.e. closed, or it may be with its wings elevated, or it may be with wings disclosed, i.e. somewhat open, but inverted, and pointing downwards(and this is practically the same as the expression overt, written sometimes overture).
Sable, an eagle close or–ROPER, Derby. Sable, a chevron ermine between three eagles close argent–GAMES, Leicester, granted 1614. Sable a chevron between three eagles close argent–JERVOISE. Azure, an eagle with wings elevated argent–COTON, Ashill, Norfolk. Argent, a bendlet(or baston) sable, between in chief an eagle rising overt vert, and in base a cross crosslet of the second–RICSWORTH.
If it is recursant, it means the head is turned back towards the sinister, the term reguardant being used for the same. If in full aspect, it is facing the spectator; if in trian aspect, something between that and facing towards the dexter.
Or, a bendlet(or baston) gules between three eagles close in trian aspect sable–Robert WILTRAM, co. York. Azure, an eagle reguardant to the sinister, rising wings overt and inverted or, breaked gules–Richard CANVILL.
Again, an eagle may be rising, that is, about to fly; volant, that is, flying; or eyrant, that is, sitting, as it were, on its nest; or it may be statant, i.e. standing in an ordinary position; and if so, generally perched upon some branch or other object, or holding something in its mouth; or it may be represented as preyant; or, again, pruning its wings. These are a few for which examples are readily found; but to judge of the varieties which might be adopted, the reader is referred to those noted under Bird, and to the article Wings.
Argent, an eagle recursant wings overture sable–BACK. Argent, an eagle rising, wings overt inverted gules, standing on a baston raguly in bend vert–William PORTER. Sable, an eagle volant argent–STAYLTON or STALTON. Gules, an eagle ayrant or–BARDOLPH, Norfolk. Azure, an eagle eyrant or, armed gules–BYGBERY, Devon. Per pale or and argent, an eagle displayed perched on a ragged staff sable–PYNELL. Azure, an eagle with wings endorsed standing on a branch of laurel all or–Priory of Austin Canons at CAERMARTHEN. Quarterly, gules and vert, an eagle displayed holding in the beak a slip of oak proper–GREAVES. Argent, an eagle preyant sable, upon a child swaddled gules–CULCHETH. Azure, an eagle pouncing on a hare courant or–DENSKINE, Scotland. Or, an eagle displayed pruning its wings azure, armed gules–ROUS, co. Devon, and HALTON, co. Cornwall.
Again, Eagles, whether in any of the positions above named, or displayed, may have their beaks, talons, or legs of a different tincture from that of the body. Of the talons the term armed in most frequently used, though unguled(fr. onglé) is sometimes used; of the legs, membered(fr. membré); of the beak, beaked(fr. becqué.) It is not unusual, too, to find an eagle crowned, or having a collar.
Argent, an eagle displayed sable, armed purple–EAGLESTON. Or, three bars azure, over all an eagle displayed gules, beaked and armed or–JERNEGAN, Fitz-Hugh. Argent, an eagle displayed sable, armed and langued gules–BRUYNE, Harl. MS. 1603. Argent, an eagle displayed sable crowned or–ESTE. Azure, an eagle displayed argent armed or, collared with a ducal coronet gules–WILCOCKS. Or, an eagle displayed azure, holding in the dexter talon a rose slipped in pale proper–CARNEGIE.
When three or more eagles occur in the same shield they are generally represented displayed, though occasionally they are found blazoned otherwise. If they are more than three they are generally blazoned as eaglets.
EGLESFIELD. Argent, three eagles displayed gules, armed or–Robert de EGLESFIELD, [Founder of Queen’s College, Oxford, and borne by the college]. Vert, three eagles displayed in fesse, within a bordure or–WILLIAMS, London. Argent fretty and four eagles displayed gules–Priory of Austin Canons at MARTON, Yorkshire. Sable, five eagles displayed in saltire argent–ROGER, Abp. of York, 1154-81. [Similar arms(excepting the tinctures) are also ascribed to Roger, Bp. of Salisbury, 1107-39, and to Alexander, Bp. of Lincoln, 1123-47.] Azure, seme of eagles displayed or–FITZSYMON, Hertfordshire. Vert, three eagles statant, wings displayed argent collared or–SMITHERMAN.
German Empire. The double-headed eagle was borne by the German emperors(who claimed to be considered the successors of the Cæsars of Rome), and hence the term frequently applied to it is imperial eagle. The wings of the imperial eagle are always drawn by German heralds with a small feather between each pair of large ones. An eagle is also borne by the emperor or czar(that is Cæsar) of Russia. In the Bulle d’or of Charles IV. (A.D. 1323) the eagle is there represented with but one head, and it is not until Sigismund has son began his reign that we find the eagle represented double headed. The eagles in the arms of many English families can be traced to some former connection between those families and the German empire. The Eagle of France dates from Napoleon Bonaparte.
MILLINGTON. Or, an eagle with two heads displayed sable–GERMAN EMPIRE. Argent, an eagle displayed double-headed sable–ATHESON, Scotland; BOWCEGAULT, Brin, co. Chester; BROWNE, Ireland, &c. Or, an eagle displayed with two necks sable–MILLINGTON.
One monstrosity may be mentioned, viz. Eagles’ heads with hounds’ ears.
Or, an eagle’s head with hound’s ears azure–AERBOROUGH.
Eagles occur sometimes as supporters; e.g. two Eagles are the supporters to the Arms of CLARKE of Courie Castle, co. Perth. Eagles’ wings are also borne by themselves; also the legs, which are frequently blazoned as erased a-la-quise, q.v.
Sire Wauter le BAUD, de goules a iij eles[i.e. ailes] de egles de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. Azure, three eagle’s legs couped argent–GAMBON. Gules, three eagle’s legs erased, talons in chief or–BAWDE, Essex.
Eaglets, (fr. aiglettes and aiglons): the diminutive of Eagle, and the term is more properly used when two or more appear upon the same coat of arms. They may have all the attributes of Eagles. [See also Allerion.]
Or, six eaglets displayed, three two and one proper–BAXTER.
Ear: the ear is seldom borne separately, but it is not uncommon in some animals, e.g. dogs, to find the ears blazoned of another tincture.
Argent, three hind’s ears gules–AUDICE.
Earl: the third order in the British Peerage, corresponding with the French Comte, and the German Graf. The name is of Saxon origin, an eonl having been in the early history of this country the governor of a shire. The first hereditary earl in England is said to have been Hugh of Avranches, surnamed Lupus, to whom William the Conqueror gave the county palatine of Chester. Earn: a hawk(Nisbet). Ears of wheat, barley, rye, &c. See under Wheat; (2.) Of beasts, the ears are sometimes of a different tincture. Earth. See Colour. Ebranché, (fr.): of a tree of which the branches have been lopped. Ecaillé, (fr.): of fish having scales when of another tincture. Ecartelé, (fr.): quarterly and ecartelé, en sautoir=per saltire. Echalas=Vine-stick. Echelle, (fr.): a ladder. Echiqueté, (fr.): chequy. Ecimé, (fr.): of a tree which has had its top cut off. Eclaté, (fr.): broken, applied by French heralds to a lance. Eclipse. See Sun. Eclopé: used by French heralds to describe a charged couped by a line of partition. Ecorché, (fr.): of animals flayed, either in part or wholly. Ecoté, (fr.): of a trunk of a tree, of which the branches have been lopped. Ecrevisse, (fr.): Crab(not crayfish). Ecrevisse de gueules is sometimes blazoned by French heralds, écrevisse cuite. Ecureuil, (fr.): Squirrel. Ecusson, (fr.): Escutcheon. Ecuyer, (fr.): title of Esquire. Edged: See under Fimbriated. Edock leaf. See Dock. Eel-pot. See Weel, or fish-basket. Eels. These are not very common on English Arms, and generally adopted, as will be observed by the examples, on account of the name. Neither the anguille or the congre have been observed on French arms. Eels may be represented naiant and hauriant, terms usually applied to fish; also nowed, a term which is applied to snakes, and embowed, which is applied to dolphins. The small eels are termed grigs.
ELLIS. Argent, three eels in pale, naiant barwise sable–Antony ELLIS, Bp. of S.David’s, 1752-61. Argent, three eels naiant in pale sable–ELLIS, Cornwall. Argent, three eels embowed in pale sable–EALES. Five arrows or entwined by an eel–Crest of family of ELWES, Suffolk. A hand gauntletted grasping an eel–Crest of family of ELLEIS, Southside, Scotland, and of ELLICE, Clothall, Hertfordshire. Argent, two eels hauriant confronty vert between two etoiles gules–ARNEEL, Scotland. Azure, a saltier between four eels naiant or–FLEURY, Ireland. Argent, three eels naiant in pale azure–DUCAT, Scotland. Gules, a chevron between three grigs with tails in their mouths argent–GRIGG. Gules, an eel nowed argent–MATHILLY.
KING’S LYNN. The Conger eel, a large eel found upon the British coasts, is as frequently adopted as the eels of the rivers. The head is perhaps more frequently found in heraldry than the whole fish, and also demi-congers.
Argent, upon a pale sable, a conger’s head couped and erected or–GASCOIGNE, Bedford. Azure, three congers hauriant[also blazoned erased] or–CONGHURST. Ermine, on a bend engrailed sable three conger-eel’s heads erased argent, collared with a bar gemel gules–CLARKE, Ipswich. Sable, three conger’s heads erased and erect argent–HOTOFF, Notts. Argent, a chevron between three conger’s heads erased–CANBROOK. A tun floating on waves between two congers respecting each other, and upon the tun a lion statant–Town Seal of CONGLETON. Gules, on a fesse argent between three congers[or sea-dragons’ heads] erased or as many trefoils slipped sable–CONGLETON, Northamptonshire. Azure, three conger-eel’s heads erased and erect or; in the mouth of each a cross crosslet fitchée of the last–Town of KING’S LYNN, Norfolk. Argent, a chevron between three demi-congers naiant gules–SHAMBROKE.
At the same time, it should be noted that there seems to be often a confusion between lucies’ heads and eels’ heads, from the similarity of drawing.
Eel-spears. Eel-spear: a kind of fork(fig. 1) used in taking eels; is represented on one or two coats of arms, while a charge in the bearings of the company of SOAPMAKERS, called an eel-spear, is represented as in the second figure. With the eel-spear may be associated the Harpoon, Harping-iron, or Salmon-spear, represented as in figs. 3 and 4. The ordinary position of the charge is with the points downwards.
Sable, a chevron between three eel-spears, points downwards, argent–STRATELE, or STRATLEY. Argent, three eelpicks sable–WORTHINGTON, Lancashire. Azure, a dolphin naiant between three eel-spears or–Company of SOAPMAKERS(Inc. 1638.) Argent, three harpoons sable[otherwise blazoned as Argent, three salmon-spears, point downwards, sable]–GLYNN, Cornwall.
Effaré, (fr.): same as Effrayé. Effarouché, (fr.): of a cat when scared. Effets: these in heraldic drawing are perhaps hardly to be distinguished from lizards, and hence the same arms are sometimes variously blazoned. The asker, which is a water-lizard, and the newt, are also found.
Azure, three effets in pale proper–COTTER, Ireland. Azure, three asker’s heads couped or–ALSACHER, Chester. Azure, an asker’s head erased or–ALSARIN. Or, a newt vert, in chief a lion rampant gules, all within a bordure of the last–SUTTON.
Effrayé, (fr.): applied to a horse when rearing. Egret. See Heron. Egyptian’s head. See Head. Eight-foil. See Foil. Elancé, (fr.): of a stag at full speed. Elbows: sometimes mentioned in describing portions of the arm. Elder-leaves appear in one coat of arms on account of the name, but neither the elder-tree nor the elder-berry seem to occur unless the alder berry, q.v., is intended for the latter.
Argent, a fesse wreathed of five pieces gules and vert; in chief two elder-leaves of the third, and a crescent in base azure–ELDERSHAW, Scotland.
Elephant. (fr. éléphant): occurs in a few insignia of cities, and in the arms of some families. The trunks or probosces(fr. proboscides) occur separate in some few cases. The tusk in French blazon is called the defense, and tusked is described as defendu of such a tincture. In one example the elephant is represented carrying a howdah, and in two examples a castle. Elephants sometimes appear as supporters, e.g. to the arms of OLIPHANT of Gask, co. Perth, and to the city of OXFORD, &c. They are not unfrequently used as crests.
Argent, an elephant statant, and carrying a howdah containing three persons with a driver proper; a bordure or–The Rajah KALEE KRISHNA Bahadin, [granted in India, Ap. 3, 1833]. Per pale gules and vert, an elephant, on his back a tower triple towered all or–City of COVENTRY. Or, an elephant azure, on his back a quadrangular castle argent, masoned proper; on the sinister tower a flag-staff and banner gules, on the dexter corner of the banner a canton argent charged with a cross gules; on the dexter corner of the escutcheon a canton quarterly of France and England–Royal AFRICAN Company, [Inc. 1662]. Gules, a chevron or between three elephant’s heads erased proper–HUSKISSON, Sussex. Argent, two elephant’s trunks reflexed endorsed gobony or and gules, fixed upon a hairy scalp with two ears sable–BOSIN. Ermine, on a pale vert between two daggers, points downwards, azure hilted or, three elephant’s probosces of the last–HUTCHINS. Also borne in the insignia of the Burgh of DUMBARTON, and by the families of SUTCLIFFE, BUTTON, and ELPHINSTONE; and the heads of elephants by the families of JEWE, SANDERS, FOUNTAINE, PRATT, SUCKLING, BRODRICK, &c.
Elevated: when applied to wings signifies that the points are upward. Elm-tree: this tree is found, and the leaves also, the latter rather frequently.
Per fesse azure and argent, a fesse counter embattled or; in chief a mullet of six points of the second; in base on a mount vert an elm tree proper–OLMIUS, London. Ermine, on two bars sable six elm leaves or, three and three–ELMES, Lincolnshire. Sable, three bars engrailed between ten elm leaves erect or–ELMSALL, Yorkshire. The leaves are also borne by the families of WALLER, Devon; FOLLIFORD, Suffolk; MURVESSE, Suffolk; ELLAMES, and several branches of the family of ELMES.
Email, (fr.): tincture(pl. emaux).
BRUYSEL DE SURE. Emanche, (fr.): a term about which English heralds seem to differ. It is, however, confined to French and German heraldry, and appears to be a piece partitioned off from the shield by a dancetty line, but often so much exaggerated as to be like two or three piles; they may be upright or fesswise; the indentations appear not to be always drawn uniform. The adjectival form emanché is perhaps more common than the substantive, an emanche. When there is only one projection the term embrassé seems to be employed by French heralds.
Emanché d’or et d’azure de trois piecès, à trois besants d’or en pointe; au chef d’argent chargé de trois bouterolles de gueules–BRUYSEL DE SURE. D’argent embrassé de gueules de sénestre a droite–DOMANTZ, Silesia.
Embattled, battled, battelly, crenelled, or kernelled: a line of partition resembling a row of battlements, (from which it derived its origin and its name) across the shield; the term may also be applied to the edge of an ordinary. When a fesse or bend or chevron is said to be embattled, it implies that it is so upon the upper side only, though sometimes this is mentioned(fr. crenellé), and the term super-embattled is occasionally found. When a fess or a chief is embattled on the under side only, the French use the term bastillé.
ABBERBURY. The “crenelles” are properly speaking the embrasures or open spaces between the “merlons,” which are the upright solid pieces. If the ordinary is crenellated on both sides it may be said to be embattled counter embattled, and this is properly used only when the crenelles on one side are opposite to the merlons on the other, and vice versâ. It may also be said to be bretessé, and this is properly used with English heralds, to signify that the crenelles are opposite to each other. With French heralds, however, the word bretessé is frequently used for counter embattled, and these terms do not seem to be used with their respective meaning very strictly even by English heralds.
Battled grady. Battled embattled, or battled grady, is a name given to a figure having, as it were, an extra battlement, but, as usual for these fanciful names, no examples are given. And the same may be said of battled arrondi, i.e. with the tops of the battlements rounded instead of straight. The term double embattled, however, does occur, and it is possibly the same as grady.
BOYLE. Or, a fesse embattled[on the upper side only] sable–ABBERBURY, Oxon, and ADDERBURY, Sussex. Sire Johan de PENZRET de goulys a une bende batille de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire Henry de SANTON d’argent a une bend bateley sable–Roll, temp. ED. III. Or, a chevron embattled at the top gules–ASLYN, Harl. MS. 1386. Argent, a bend embattled counter embattled azure–SANDILANDS, Scotland. Azure, a bend bretessed or–BRESCETT. Or, a fesse bretessed gules–CREBBOTT, Sussex. Argent, masonny; a chief embattled sable–REYNALL, Devon, 1716. Argent, three bendlets embattled sable–Hadrian de CASTELLO, Bishop of Hereford, 1502; Bath and Wells, 1504-18. Per bend embattled argent and gules–BOYLE, Middlesex. Argent, a saltire counter embattled sable–Richard KIDDER, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1691-1703. Sable, a fesse counter embattled between three Catherine wheels or–Thomas de BRENTINGHAM, Bp. of Exeter, 1370-94. Or, a fesse double embattled at the top sable; a label of three points gules–M. Richard ABBERBURY, [Roll, A.D. 1392-97]. Azure, three bendlets embattled counter embattled or–FREYNES.
Embelief, a word of doubtful origin, but of which enhanced is the probable signification, as will be seen by comparison of the two blazoning of the arms of GREILLI. Sir Harris Nicolas suggests that it is a misreading of en le chief. Confer with derechief in arms of S.AMANT, from Roll of Carlaverock, under roundle.
Thomas GREILEY, de goules a trois bendes d’or embelief–Roll, temp. HEN. III. [Johan de GRELLI, gules, three bendlets enhanced or–Roll, temp. EDW. I.; Harl. MS. 6137.] Robert de MERE, gules, a lion ‘rampant sautant embelif’ d’argent–Roll, temp. EDW. III.; [Harl. MS. 6589.]
Emblazon: to draw out in full and colour a coat of arms from a description. Reverse of to blazon. Embordured: a term given, but not used, in British heraldry, signifying that the bordure is of the same tincture as the field, and only distinguished from it by the shadow. Embouté, (fr.): knobbed; used when the end of a handle or staff is of a different tincture.
Crest of GWIN. Embowed, (fr. courbé): bent, or bowed; applied to the arm of a man, and still more frequently to dolphins. The term flected or flexed is also used of the arm of a man, to signify the same.
On a wreath or and sable, a dexter arm embowed vambraced proper, the gauntlet holding a sword below the hilt, in bend sinister, point downwards, argent, hilt and pomel gold–Crest of GWIN, Wales, and Berks. Sable, three dexter arms vambraced, couped at the shoulders, embowed to the sinister, two and one, the upper parts in pale, the lower fesswise, each holding in the gauntlet a sword erect, all proper garnished or–STRONGITHARM. Sable, three dolphins embowed argent–KENDALL, Exeter.
Bend embowed. With French heralds the word courbé is more frequently applied to the fesse, bend, &c., when either are slightly bend upwards. English heralds also speak of the bend, &c., as arched, enarched, or embowed, but such devices, though common in French arms, and more so still in German arms, are very seldom, if ever, found in true English heraldry. An example of a bend embowed is given under Crown of Rue, from the Dukedom of SAXONY.
Argent, three bars enarched in the middle gules–HENCKELL, London.
Bowed embowed, and flexed reflexed, are terms used to signify the from of the latter S: the terms also annodated, torqued, &c., and used irregularly for the same: and bowed counter embowed is said of two arms bowed in opposite directions. Embraced, (fr. entrelacé); e.g. of Annulets. Embracing: hands are sometimes so described; also improperly used of annulets when braced. Embrassé. See Emanche.
Trundle. Embroiderers’ Broaches, Trundles, and Quill. The broach is an instrument used by embroiderers, and borne by their several companies; it is represented as in the margin, but as a rule two are borne together in saltire. The Trundle represents a quill of gold thread, two of which are represented in the arms of the London company, as in fig. 1, though in the drawing there appears to be some confusion between the trundles, fusils, and quills when full.
Quills. Quill(or wheel quill) of yarn, if full, would be represented as in fig. 2; an empty quill as in fig. 3; but there are many varieties of drawing of the same arms. See also Fusil.
Paly of six, argent and azure, on a fesse gules between three lions passant guardant or, two broaches in saltire between two trundles(i.e. quills of gold thread) or–EMBROIDERERS’ COMPANY of London[incorporated 1562]. Gules, two broaches in saltire argent, between as many trundles or, on a chief of the second a lion passant gules–EMBROIDERERS’ COMPANY at Bristol and Chester. Argent, three weaver’s shuttles sable, topped and furnished with quills of yarn, the threads pendent or–SHUTTLEWORTH.
Embrued: bloody, or rather, dropping with blood, and so different from ensanglanté. Weapons are thus blazoned(e.g. spear-heads, swords), and also sometimes an animal, especially a wolf. Emerald. See Vert. Emerasses, or ailettes; also written alettes and alerons(all fr.): small escutcheons affixed to the shoulders of an armed knight. They are named in the inventory of Humphrey de Bohun, taken 1322.
iiij peire de alettes des armes le Counte de Hereford.
Ailettes shewn in the brass of Sir Roger de TRUMPINGTON. They are sometimes shield-shaped, as those of Sir Simon de FELBRIGGE, K.G., on his sepulchral brass at Felbrigge, Norfolk, which are charged with the cross of S.George, and sometimes circular, as those of the TURVILE family at Wolston, Warwickshire, which are charged with the arms of the knight himself. Square emerasses with the arms of the bearer generally denote that he was a knight banneret, as in the figure of one of the HOWARD family at East Winch church, Norfolk, and in that of Sir Roger de TRUMPINGTON, which is shewn in the margin. Emmanché, (fr.): of hatchets, or hammers, and the like, having handles of a different tincture. Emmet. See Ant. Emmuselé, (fr.): muzzled, e.g. of a bear. Emoussée, (fr.): of an arrow, if the point is couped or blunted. Empenné, (fr.): feathered; or arrows. Empiétant, (fr.): of birds, preying. Empoigné, (fr.):=banded; used e.g. of arrows when three or more are tied together. Enaluron. See Bordure. Enarched. See Embowed. Encensoir, (fr.). See Censer. Enceppé: girt or collared about the middle, as of apes or monkeys, e.g. the supporters of the arms of the Duke of LEINSTER, which are said to have reference to a family legend. Enchaussé, (fr.): only occurs in French arms, and that rarely; it refers to a portion of the shield obscured, and seems to be the reverse of chapé. Enclavé, (fr.): a rarely-used term of French heralds, describing a peculiar partition of the shield, when one portion enters another like a mortise. Encoché, (fr.): of an arrow notched or nooked. Endented, (fr. endenté). See Indented. Endentures, (old fr.): indentations. Endorse, endorce, or indorse: a diminutive of the pale, of which it is one-fourth, or according to some authorities, one-eight. It bears exactly the same relation to that ordinary as the cottice does to the bend. See Cross, §8.
Argent, a pale engrailed between two indorses sable–BELLASIS, Scotland.
Endorsed: often used in the sense of addorsed, q.v. Enfiled, (fr. enfilé). When a sword is drawn with the head of a beast, a coronet, or any other object so placed that the blade pierces it though, the sword is said to be enfiled with such an object; or in the case of rings, crowns, or fillets, though which a sword or crosier is passed, the term may also be used.
ORFORD. Gules, three keys enfiled with as many crowns or–Robert ORFORD, Bp. of Ely, 1303-10. Azure, a sword palewise argent, enfiled in chief by a dexter hand couped fessways gules, all between two mullets pierced or–MAC MORUN. Per pale azure and gules, over all a lion passant guardant holding a crosier enfiled with a mitre or; all within a bordure argent charged with eight text B’s sable–BERMONDSEY, Cluniac Priory, Surrey. Argent, on a cross patty gules a crosier enfiling a mitre or–Bishopric of CORK and ROSS.
Royal Arms of ENGLAND. England, Armorial insignia of. The Insignia of England are said to have had originally only two lions, but that on the marriage of Henry II. with Eleanor of Aquitaine, another lion for that duchy was then added. They thus appear for the first time on the Great Seal of RICHARD I.; the Seals of the two Williams, as well as of the two preceding Henries, shewing only the reverse side of the shield, and that of Stephen being to all appearance plain. From this time forward they have been recognized as the Arms of England.
Le roy DENGLETER, de goules a treys lepardes de or–[Harl. MS. 6589, temp. HEN. III.] Le Roy d’ANGLETERRE, porte goules trois leopards d’or–[MS. L. 14, College of Arms, temp. HEN. III.] Gules, three lions[properly leopards] passant guardant in pale or–Royal Arms of ENGLAND.
Englanté, (fr.): of an oak-tree with the acorns on it. Engoulant, or Ingullant: swallowing or devouring. See Vorant. Engoulé, (fr.): in French arms ordinaries are found terminated with heads of animals, in the act of swallowing them, e.g. sauton engoulé de quatre têtes de leopards. Engrailed, or Ingrailed, (fr. engrélé): a term applied to the cutting of the edge of a border, bend, or fesse, &c., into small semicircular indents, the teeth or points of which being outward enter the field: it is the contrary of invected, in which case the points are inwards. The term, as will be seem from the examples, is an old one, and is very frequently applied to the bordure; when applied to crosses and saltires heralds contend that they ought not to be engrailed at their ends. The term counter engrailed is found, but it is seldom employed; as when a fesse chevron or bend is blazoned engrailed , it implies that the ordinary is to be so on both sides. With French heralds the term engrelure signifies a narrow chief, so to speak, engrailed on the lower side.
RADCLIFFE. Adam de NEWMARCHE de goules ung fece engrele or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sire Johan de PENBRUGE de argent, od le chef de azure e une bende engrele de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire Philip de DABENEY, port gules une fesse engrele d’argent de quatre peces–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire BOTEVILL, port d’argent une fesse engrele gules de iiij points, trois feuilles de sable un le cheif–Ibid. Argent, a bend engrailed sable–RADCLIFFE. Gules, six annulets or, three, two, and one, within a bordure engrailed compony argent and azure–CROUMWELL. Argent, on a pale voided engrailed counter engrailed three crosses patty, all within a bordure sable–CROWCHE. De sinople, à trois fasces d’argent à l’engrelure du même–SAINT CHAMANS DU PECHER, Limosin.
Engrélé, (fr.): engrailed. Engrossing block. See Crest of Wire-drawers. Enguiché, (fr.): of ends of horns, when of different tincture. Enhanced, (fr. enhaussé): applied to an ordinary borne higher than its usual position. Enlevé, (fr.): raised or elevated; synonymous with enhanced. Enquerre, (fr.), Armes à. q.v. Enraged, (fr. fier); applied to the horse when saliant; also to a boar, and rarely to a lion. Ensanglanté, (fr.): of the pelican and other animals represented bleeding, i.q. vulned. Ensign, or Insignia, (fr. enseigne): the more correct term for the armorial bearings of a Kingdom, of an Office, or of a Community. In common parlance, however, the Arms of England, or the arms of this or that town, are spoken of. The term ensigned has a different signification, and is used of a charge having a cross, or mitre, or crown, placed above it, and the term supporting such a charge is sometimes used also with the same signification. It is to be distinguished from enfiled. A staff also may be ensigned with a flag.
Sable, a chevron ensigned with a cross patty argent–FAIRFIELD. Azure, an annulet ensigned with a cross patty, and interlaced with a saltire, couped and conjoined at base or–Borough of Southwark. Argent, an oak tree eradicated in bend sinister vert, surmounted by a sword in bend dexter azure, hilted or, ensigned on the front with a royal crown of the last–M’GREGOR.
Entire, throughout, fixed, or firm: used of Crosses(see Cr., §7), or other charges, to signify that they are extended to the sides of the escutcheon. Entoured. See Enveloped. Entoyer, Entoire, and Entier. See under Bordure. Entrailed: outlined, with black lines. See Cross, §18, and Adumbration. Entrelacé, (fr.): interlaced. Entrevaillé: a French term applied to fish when interlaced in bars or bendlets. Entwined. See Enveloped. Enty: a word adopted but by few writers from the French enté, a graft, and applied to the base of the shield when parted off by a line chevronwise: written by some heralds ampty. See Point: also Gusset.
Argent, on a chief enty[in more recent blazon ‘indented’] azure five crosses croslet or–Raphe de WILSHERE.
Enurney. See Bordure. Envecked. See Invected. Enveloped, enwrapped, entwisted, entwined, environed(fr. environné), entoured(fr. entouré), are all terms used in blazoning with much the same signification. Enveloped and enwrapped are used when any charge is entwisted or entwined about something else, e.g. of boys’ heads, (q.v.) when enveloped about the neck by a snake.
Enveloped. Or, a pillar sable enwrapped with an adder argent–MYNTER. Sable, a crosier in pale entwined with a ribbon between two coronets … S.Benet’s Abbey, HULME. Azure, three boy’s heads affronty couped at the shoulders proper, armed or, each enveloped(or enwrapped) about the neck with a snake vert–VAUGHAN, Wales.
Environed is more frequently applied when the charge is surrounded by wreaths, and entoured, perhaps, when other charges are placed around in orle: also used of a shield which is decorated with branches.
Azure, an annulet environing a barrulet, between two bars, and in chief a cross patty fitchy or–HOLTE. Sable, an annulet environing a crosier, the foot enwrapped by a snake; in chief two coronets argent–Benedictine Abbey, BARDNEY, co. Lincoln.
Environed. See Enveloped. Enwrapped. See Enveloped. Epanoui, (fr.): of fleur-de-lis, &c., the top flower being open with buds between. Eperon, (fr.): Spur. Epervier, (fr.): sparrow-hawk, under Falcon. Epieu, (fr.): a kind of halbert used in the chase. Epis, (fr.): used for ears of corn, &c., with stalks erect. Episcopal staff. See Crosier. Eployé: the French term for displayed, applied to wings of birds. It seems in some cases to imply the double-headed Eagle, q.v. Equartilé: i.q. quarterly. Equipollé, (fr.): chequy of nine squares, five of one tincture, four of another. See Cross, §5. Equipped, (fr. equipé): of a vessel, with all its sails, ropes, anchor, &c., complete. Er: contraction of the word ermine, often used in tricking. Eradicated, (fr. arraché): used of a tree(q.v.) which has been torn up by the roots.
HUGH DE ABRINCIS. Erased, eraced, or erazed(fr. arraché): violently torn off, leaving a jagged edge. Then term is chiefly applied to the heads and limbs of animals. When applied to birds’ legs the expression à-la-quise, i.e. à la cuisse, is often added to signify that the upper part of the leg is shewn. A head erased close signifies that it is torn off without any part of the neck remaining attached to it.
Azure, a wolf’s head erased argent–HUGH DE ABRINCIS(or LUPUS), Earl of Chester. Argent, an elephant’s head erased gules–BRODRICK. Ermine, a goat’s head erased gules–GOTLEY. Azure, three eagle’s legs erased a la quise or–GAMBON. Gules, a lion rampant, the head argent, divided by a line of erasure from the body within an orle of seven 5-foils or–GRACE.
Erect: the term used by heralds for upright, as of heads of animals, fishes, &c.; also of lions’ tails, placed perpendicularly; and of the hand in the baronet’s badge. The word should not be used with relation to any charge, the natural position of which is upright, as a flower or a tree; it is very properly used for leaves and fruit, of which the natural position is pendent. The word is also supposed to be more properly used of certain animals and reptiles instead of rampant, and of crabs and lobsters instead of haurient; it is sometimes applied even to fish, though perhaps improperly. Insects also are found blazoned as erect, e.g. bees, q.v.
BOOTHE. Argent, three boar’s heads erased erected sable–John BOOTHE, Bp. of Exeter, 1465-78. Gules on a sinister hand couped and erect proper, a human heart of the field charged with a cross argent–MULENCAR, Amsterdam. Argent, three crabs erect sable–ALLYM or AUDLYM. Sable, three salmons erect argent, two and one; a chief or–KIDSON, Bishopwearmouth, Durham. Gules, three fishes erect or, two and one–O’CAHANE, Ireland.
TATESHALE. Ermine, or Ermin, (old fr. armine, fr. hermine): the fur most frequently used in heraldry. It derives its name from the Ermine or mus Armenicus(so call from being found in the woods of Armenia), a small white animal whose fur it is. The black spots are supposed to represent the tails of ermines, sewed to the white fur for its enrichment. When a bend is ermine, the spots(like all other charges placed upon a bend) must be bendwise, but on a chevron, saltire, &c., they are drawn upright. The term ermyn is frequently found in the ancient rolls of arms, and is very often applied to a quarter or canton. Ermine is practically used like any other tincture, and so any animals, e.g. lions, may be blazoned ermine. Also a crescent, q.v., and even martlets may be blazoned ermine, both occurring in the arms of Frank DE BOUN. A coat of arms of ermine only has been ascribed to the dukes of BRITTANY, but more frequently to the province,
Robert de TATESHALE, eschequere d’or et de goules, ung cheif d’ermyne–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Robert de TATISHALE eschequere d’or e de goules al chef armine–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Harl. MS. 6589. John de NEVILLE, COWERDE, mascule d’or e de goules ung quartier de hermyne–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Hugh BOLEBEK, vert ung lion d’ermyn rampand–Ibid. Le Counte de Bretaine eschekere d’or e dazur a une kantelle dermine a un bordure de goules–Harl. MS. 6589, temp. HEN. III.
Cele de TATESHALE a oun De or e de rouge eschequeré Por sa valour o eus tirée Au chef de ermine outréement. Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
The arms, too, which in some rolls, tinctured blanc are supposed to represent this fur, as they are in others tinctured ermine, the tincture representing rather the white skin of the animal than the metal. For instance, at the siege of Carlaverock the arms of Morice de BERKELE are described as–
Vermeil … croissilie o un chevron blanc,
through the arms of the Berkley family are elsewhere blazoned–
Gules, crusilly argent, a chevron ermine.
Again, while numerous instances occur of “gules with a fesse ermine,” it is doubtful if an example is to be found of “gules with a fesse argent.” And the Carlaverock poet possibly intends ermine when he writes:–
Bien doi mettre en mon serventois Baniere ot rouge ou entaillie Ke Elys de AUBIGNI li courtois Ot fesse blanche engreelie.
The same poem also gives.
BADELSMERE, Ki tout le jour Portoit en blanc au bleu label Iluec se contint bien e bel Fesse rouge entre deux jumeaux.
Again, the waterbougets in the arms described there as.
Guillemes de Ros assemblans I fu rouge o trois bouz blans
appear afterwards, blazoned of different tinctures, sometimes as argent, sometimes as ermine.
Ermine spots. Although the form shewn in the illustrations is used in all modern emblazoning, there were ancient forms of the ermine spot, as shewn in the margin. No. 1 is from the surcoat of Sir Robert du BOIS, upon his tomb in Fersfield Church, Norfolk,–he died 1311; No. 2, from the stall plates of Sir Walter PAVELEY, one of the first knights of the Garter, and Sir Thomas BANASTER, his successor in the stall,–the first died 1376, the other, 1379; and No. 3 from the stall-plate of Sir Simon DE FELBRYGG, K.G., who died A.D. 1422. An ermine spot, (fr. hermine, or moucheture, whence the word mouchetor in some heraldic works) is occasionally found to occur by itself; sometimes more than one are named, and sometimes, when there is only space for a few spots, the term spotted is used.
Azure, three plates, on each an ermine spot sable–NEWALL. Or, on two bars azure as many barrulets dancetty argent; a chief indented of the second charged with an ermine spot or–SAWBRIDGE. Argent, a chevron between three crows sable, in each beak an ermine spot–LLOYD, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1680, Lichfield, 1692, and Worcester, 1700-17. Argent, a fesse gules between three ermine spots sable–KILVINGTON. Argent, two bars sable, spotted ermine, in chief a lion passant gules–HILL, co. Wexford. D’argent, à cinq hermines de sable posées 2, 1 et 2–BROUILHAC DE LA MOTHE COMTAIS, Poitou. D’azure, à trois besants d’argent chargés chacum d’une moucheture d’hermines–VENCE, Orleanais.
A cross erminée or of four ermine spots.–See Cross §8.
ABP.BRADWARDINE. Ermines(fr. contre hermine), and counter ermine, as given by Nisbet: a fur resembling ermine in pattern, but having the tinctures reversed, the field being sable, and the spots argent.
Barry of six ermine and ermines–BRADWARDINE, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1349. Argent, a chevron engrailed ermine; on a chief sable three martlets of the first–WILDE, co. Leicester. Ermines, simply–MIGNON. Per chevron ermine and ermines, a chevron per chevron sable and argent; on the first three estoiles or–WIGSTON.
Erminites, or erminetes and erminois. These are varieties of ermine, i.e. of the fur of the same from but of different colours. The first is supposed to be distinguished by having a red hair on the side of each spot, and it is doubtful if a case occurs in true English heraldry; erminois is used when the field is or, and spots sable. The pean is said to be sable with spots or. This name was derived from the old fr. pannes, or square pieces of fur of different tincture sewn together. The French call all the above furs hermines, adding the names of the tincture.
Quarterly indented erminois and gules; in the first quarter a lion passant guardant gules–CROFT, co. York. Sable, a chevron erminois; on a chief indented argent an estoile between two mullets gules–KEIRLL, co. Hereford. Per bend sinister ermine and erminois, a lion rampant or–EDDOWES. Pean, a cross quarter pierced erminois–GROIN, Watlington, Norfolk, Harl. MS., 1177. Per bend sinister ermine and pean, a lion rampant or gorged with a wreath of oak vert, and supporting in the dexter forepaw a sword erect proper pomel and hilt gold–LLOYD, Lancing, Sussex. Per bend sinister ermine and ermines, a lion rampant reguardant erminois; on a chief azure three mullets of six points argent–DAVIS. Or, a cross gules, semée of ermine spots argent–DEOBODY, Ireland. De gueules, a six hermines d’argent 3, 2, et 1–ROUX. D’argent, semé d’hermines de sable–BERRY, Poitou, Languedoc.
Ermine, (the animal). See Weasel. Escallop, or escallop shell, (fr. coquille). This is the badge of a pilgrim, also a symbol of the Apostle S.James the Great, who is generally drawn in the garb of a pilgrim. As it is found in ancient heraldry as early as Henry III.’s time, it was probably suggested by the eastern pilgrimages. It is borne in various ways, often surmounting an ordinary or other charge, especially a cross, chief, or bordure, &c. It is clear that the old French term coquille(from which we derive out modern cockle shell), is the same, though heralds pretend that when this is used the shell should have the edge upwards. The shell is always represented with the outside of the valve towards the spectator; but in French arms the interior is sometimes shewn, and then the term vannet in used. See fan under basket.
Duke of BEDFORD. Argent, an escallop gules–PRELATE, Glouc. Azure, three escallops or–Abbey of READING, Berks. [Under the patronage of S.James Abbey.] Per pale argent and gules, an escallop or–Augustinian Abbey of S.James, Northampton. Gules, two lions passant guardant or, oppressed by a bend azure, within a bordure of the third semé of escallops argent–HOLLAND. Quarterly argent and gules, in the second and third a fret or, over all a bendlet sable, charged with three escallops of the first–SPENCER, of Althorpe, Northamp. [The mullet or is a marks of cadency.] Argent, a lion rampant gules; on a chief sable three escallops of the first–RUSSELL, Duke of Bedford. Herbert de CHAMBERLEYNE, de goules a trois escallops d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Rafe BIGOT, d’or ung crois de goules a les escallops d’argent en le croix–Ibid. Warin de MONCHENSY, d’or ove trois escocheons barres de verre et de goules–Ibid. Sire Thomas de SEIN LOY, de goules a une fesse e iij escalops de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Monsire de ST.LOE, port de gules a une fes d’argent entre trois cokils d’argent–Roll, temp. ED. III. Le Sire de HALTON, port d’argent deux barres d’asur a trois escalops gules en la chief–Ibid. Monsire Richard de HOWLAND, port de sable a une lyon rampant d’argent a une urle des cokelles d’argent–Ibid. Monsire Robert INGHAM, port d’ermin a une fes de gules trois cokils d’or en le fes–Ibid. Barry of four argent and azure semé of cockleshells–Silesian family of VON STRACHWITZ. D’azur, a trois vannets d’or–BEAUSSIER DE LA CHAULANE, Provence.
The escallop, it will be noted, is sometimes used to denote a difference, but it does not occur amongst the recognised charges for this purpose. See Cadency.
Pale of six argent and vert an escallop for “difference,” as the first–HOPWOOD, Lancaster. Or, an escallop for “difference” between three crescents within a double tressure flory counter flory gules–SEATON, Pethoder, Scotland.
Escallopped is used in a remarkable case, forming a kind of vair, in which the scallops represent scales.
Barry of four, counter escallopped argent and gules, each scale nailed sable–ARMOURER.
Ascribed to MANDEVILLE. Escarboucle: since the earliest form which we find of this word charboucle, which only in very much later times was corrupted into carbuncle, we must look for its origin in a buckle of some kind. The present form seems to owe its origin to the metal-work on the shield, such as is exhibited on the monumental effigy(commonly ascribed to Geoffrey of Mandeville, Earl of Essex, who died in 1144,) now existing in the Temple church. The effigy, however, can scarcely be earlier than 1185, the date of the consecration of the church. The device being so exactly of the character of the metal-work of the thirteenth century it was no doubt intended by the sculptor to pourtray the ornamental iron-work, which was added to strengthen the shield, the protuberances representing bosses or rivets. That they were not intended for the arms of DE MANDEVILLE is clear, as in the contemporary Rolls of Arms we have his shield blazoned thus.
Le comte de MANDEVILE, quartele d’or et de goulez–Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Nor is there any reason to attribute them especially to any knight who is likely to have been buried there. The special figure appears afterwards to have been assumed as a regular device, and it is found amongst the historical arms painted on Queen Elizabeth’s tomb in Westminster Abbey, but it is of more ornamental a character than the one on the supposed tomb of Geoffrey Mandeville. Having become a regular device, and borne by several families, it came to have varied nomenclature, and the number of rays was reduced to six and extended to twelve, so that the number came to be mentioned. Some authors have called the rays staves, nor is this altogether needless, as examples are to be found with the staves blazoned nowyed, or pometty, and other floretty. In some of the cases, however, the device thus blazoned may be intended for a wheel, but badly drawn. The name charboucle is the old form, as will be seen, since it is used in the earliest rolls as well as by Chaucer.
“His shield was all of gold so red, A charboucle beside.” And therin was a bores hed, Chaucer, Rime of Sire Thopas, 13798.
Arms on ELIZABETH’S tomb, Westminster. Le Counte de CLEVE, de goules a un eschochon d’argent a un charbocle d’or flurte–Roll, temp. HEN. III. ; Harl. MS. 6589. Gules, a chief argent over all an Escarbuncle or–Arms ascribed to the Counts of Anjou. [Painted on Queen’s Elizabeth’s tomb.] Argent, an escarbuncle or, over all an escucheon sable–CLEVE. Argent, an escarbuncle sable–BOTHER. Gules, an escarbuncle of six points or–NEVERNE. Argent, two bars azure, over all an escarbuncle of eight points gules, pometty and floretty or–BLOUNT. [In another family an escarbuncle gules nowed or, and in another of eight rays or.] Argent, on a bend gules three escarbuncles or–THORNETON. Gules, a cross within a bordure or, over all an escarbuncle of eight staves sable–Benedictine Abbey of S.JOHN, COLCHESTER. Sable, an escarbuncle or, but with twelve rays–RUTHFIO, Cornwall. Argent, an escarbuncle of eight rays argent, over all a fesse as the second–PHEIPOWE, Ireland. Quarterly gules and argent, over all an escarbuncle sable oppressed by a quatrefoil quarterly argent and gules–Sire Geoffrey MANDEVILLE, Earl of Essex. [Only in a very late MS.]
Escroll. Escroll, or Scroll: a long strip of parchment bearing the motto. It is for the most part placed below the arms, but sometimes, especially in Scotland, above the crest. Scrolls are occasionally found in both these positions. Escroll occur rarely as charges.
Or, on a bend sable, three ostrich feathers argent, the quills transfixed through as many escrolls gold–Sir Roger de CLARENDON, [natural son of Edward the Black Prince]. Azure, a lion rampant or between three escrolls argent–GOULD. Gules, a coronet or, ensigned by a demi swan without wings argent; from the mouth a scroll compassing the neck in form of a rein sable–BUCKHILL. Argent, a lion rampant azure, holding in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert in chief a scroll sable, thereon the word Emmanuel or–EMMANUEL COLLEGE, Cambridge.
Esculapius’ Rod is borne in coats of arms.
Per fesse or and sable, a lion rampant counterchanged, armed and langued gules, on a canton of the last an Esculapius’ rod palewise entwined with serpents argent–M’WHIRTER. Sable, on a chevron between three spear heads argent, two staves of Esculapius, chevron wise, each entwined by a serpent proper–JONES, co. Carnarvon.
Escutcheon, (fr. écusson): (1) The shield itself whereon arms are emblazoned, (2) more especially of a small shield of which more than one(generally three) are borne on the shield. A single one so borne is called in inescutcheon. The term is found in early rolls spelt in various ways. Where there is a single inescutcheon the arms might be blazoned as with a bordure of such a tincture as the arms of DARCY shew. While the pierced or false escutcheons of the old rolls would be now blazoned as orles. As a rule the escutcheon is drawn much smaller than the space enclosed by a bordure.
MONTACUTE. Argent, three escutcheons gules–HAY. Warin de MONCHENSY, d’or ove trois escocheons barres de verre et de goules–Roll, temp. HENRY III. Le Counte de WHITINGWEN veire dor e de goules a une escuchon dazur a un sautour dargent–Ibid. Sire William de VAUS, de argent, a un escuchoun de goules, od la bordure de merelos de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Johan DARCY, de argent, a un escuchon de sable, od les rosettes de goules assis en la manere de bordure–Ibid. Sire Robert DARCY, de argent a iij roses de goules, od la bordure enlente de sable–Ibid. Sire Thomas de BAYLOLF, de argent a une escuchoun de goules percee e un label de azure–Ibid. Sire Bertelmehn de A WYLLERS, de argent a iij escoucheons de goulys–Ibid. Or, an inescutcheon gules–CONSTABLE. Eustace de BALIOLL, d’azur au faus escocheon d’or crusule d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sr Alexandre de BAYLOLFZ, porte d’argent ou ung faux eschue de gulez–Roll, temp. ED. I. [Harl. MS. 6589.] Or, two bars gules; on a chief azure an inescutcheon ermine–NORTON, London, 1611, and STRELTON, co. Salop. Or, three bends wavy azure; on an inescutcheon three fusils–Simon MONTACUTE, Bp. of Worcester, 1337-45. Gules, crusily and a lion passant gardant or, a canton argent, charged with an eagle displayed sable, on the breast an escucheon gold charged with three bars azure–ASTELL, Leicester. …. a castle with five towers, over the port, an escucheon argent on a cross gules a fleur-de-lis or–Seal of City of LINCOLN. Or, on a lion rampant sable an antique escutcheon or, charged with a cross patty gules–POWNALL. Gules, on a rock proper a castle triple-towered argent masoned sable, surmounted by an escucheon gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or–Town of DORCHESTER, Dorset.
Escutcheon of Pretence: a shield containing the arms of an heiress, placed in the centre of her husband’s arms instead of being impaled with them, is so called.
Argent, on a fesse dancetty azure, between three mullets sable as many bezants, over all an inescutcheon of pretence or, a sinister wing erect sable–DIMSDALE, Herts.
Espanié, (old fr.): of an eagle, displayed. Espaule, (old fr.): for shoulder. Esquartelé=quarterly. Esquire, equire, esquierre, or squire(fr. esquerre, or équerre): a figure similar in form to a gyron. The chief examples are those in the arms of MORTIMER(earls of March), which are variously blazoned, each successive heraldic writer attempting to improve upon his predecessor. The following its the description in the Siege of Carlaverock, and it has been thought well to give the English in a paraller column.
Epuis Rogiers de Mortemer, |And next Roger de Mortimer, Ki, deca mer e dela mer, |Who, on both sides the sea, A porté quel part ke ait alé |Has borne wherever he went L’escu barré au chief palé |A shield barry with a chief paly E les cornieres gyronnées, |And the corners gyronny, De or e de asur enluminées, |Emblazoned with gold and blue, O le escuchon vuidie de ermine. |With the escutcheon voided of Roll of Carlaverock. | ermine.
Next are given the varieties of blazoning, the same, or nearly the same, arms in different rolls of arms, as well as one or two more recent examples.
HOGELEY. Roger de MORTIMER, barre, a cheif palee a corners gerone, d’or et d’azur, a ung escuchon d’argent–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Sire Rog. de MORTIMER, barre de or e de azure od le chef palee les corners geroune, a un escuchon de argent–Roll, temp. EDW. II. Sire Rog. de MORTIMER, le oncle, meyme les armes, od le escuchon de ermyne–Ibid. Roger de MORTYMER, barre dor et dazur al chef pale al chantel gerone a un escochon dargent–Roll, temp. HEN. III., Harl. MS. 6589. Per pale azure and argent, two bars, and in chief a pale between as many esquires based dexter and sinister all counterchanged; an escutcheon of the second–MORTYMER[as blazoned by York Herald, Harl. MS. 807, from Hagley Ch., Worcester]. Barry of six or and azure, on a chief of the first, three palets, between two based esquires[some say gyrons or gyronnies] of the second; over all an inescutcheon argent–MORTIMER. On a chief azure between two cantons per bend or and the last, dexter and sinister, as many palets gold–MORTIMER. Barry of five azure and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escucheon argent–BLANCFRONT. Barry of five gules and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escucheon or–HOGELEY. Barry of five sable and or, on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all an escutcheon barry of six gules and ermine–BUTTELER. Barry of seven azure and argent on a chief as the first two palets between so many based esquires like the second, over all on an escucheon a cross croslet fitchy argent–Benedictine Abbey at WINCHCOMBE or WINCHELCOMBE, Gloucester. Per fesse; the chief part quarterly indented per fesse or and ermine; the base argent charged with squires[cantons voided] sable–BARLAY.
Theoretical heralds say that the esquire may be drawn across the whole shield, but no examples are found; while the expression based or bast esquire has probably arisen from some error, but it is found used by more than one writer. It would have been better if heralds had been content with the old form, corners gyronny. Esquire, (lat. armiger, fr. escuyer): a title of a gentleman of the rank immediately below a knight. It was originally a military office, an esquire being(as the name escuyer, from escu, a shield, implies) a knight’s attendant and shield bearer. Esquires may be theoretically divided into five classes: 1. The younger sons of peers and their eldest sons. 2. The eldest sons of knights and their eldest sons. 3. The chiefs of ancient families are esquires by prescription. 4. Esquires by creation or office. Such the heralds and serjeants at arms and some others, who are constituted esquires by receiving a collar of SS. Judges and other officers of state, justices of the peace, and the higher naval and military officers are designated esquires in their patents or commissions. Doctors in the several faculties, and barristers at law, are considered as esquires, or equal to esquires. None, however, of these offices or degrees convey gentility to the posterity of their holders. 5. the last kind of esquires are those of knights of the bath; each knight appoints two to attend upon him at his installation and at coronations. A special helmet was appropriated to esquires. Essorant, (fr.): Soaring, or rising. Essore, (fr.): of the tincture of roofs of houses(?). Estendart, (fr.): standard. See Flag.
Badge of RICHARD I. Estoile, or star, (fr. étoile): is as a rule represented of six points and wavy. Estoiles sometimes occur with a greater number of points, as eight, or sixteen. When the rays are represented straight this has been probably by accident, as the figure would then more properly be described as a mullet of so many points, but there has, no doubt, been some confusion between the estoile and mullet, the latter with English heralds being of five points, and with French heralds of six. See Mullet, also Star, and Rowel.
Sable, an estoile argent–INGILBY, Yorkshire. [other branches of the same family bear the estoile with eight and sixteen points.] Azure, an estoile of sixteen points or–HINTSON, Yorkshire. Gilbert HANSARDE, de goules a trois estoiles d’argent–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Monsire John de COBHAM, gules sur une cheveron d’or, trois estoilles de sable, entre trois lis le asur–Roll, temp. ED. III. Le Count d’OXFORD, port quarterly, d’or et gules, a un estoiele d’argent en le quarter gules devant–Ibid. Argent, a chevron between three estoiles sable–MORDAUNT, Earl of Peterborough, 1628. Ermine, on a canton sable a five-pointed estoile argent–Sir William de STROUD, Somerset. Argent, a chevron between three estoiles of eight points wavy or–WISEMAN, Scotland. Gules, a chevron engrailed between three six-pointed estoiles argent–PUISON, London. Azure, a nine-pointed estoile or–ALDHAM.
A star within a crescent appears as the badge of RICHARD I., JOHN, and HENRY III., and was possibly intended to signify the ascendancy of Christianity over Mahomedanism, and so emblematic of the Crusades. Estroict, (old fr.): used of a lion’s tail when straight. See under Tail. Etête, (fr.): used by French heralds when an animal is headless. Etincélant, (fr.): of coals when emitting sparks. Etincelé, (fr.): semé of sparks. Etrier, (fr.): stirrup.
Abp.REYNOLDS. Evangelistic Symbols: These four symbols, which have their origin in the mystical interpretation of the first chapter of Ezekiel(ver. 10) compared with the fourth chapter of Revelation(ver. 6, 7), occur on at least one coat of arms.
Azure, on a cross or between the symbols of the four evangelists of the last, five lions rampant gules, armed and langued azure–REYNOLDS, Bp. of Worc. 1309, afterwards Abp. of Cant. 1314-1327.
Laver-pot. Ewer, or laver-pot, (fr. aiguierre, also burette): this and similar charges, such as jug, and beaker, are variously represented. The laver-pot in the FOUNDERS’ Company is represented as below, but the more ordinary form is that given in the margin. The handle(fr. corniere) should be sinister, and the lip dexter. This charge does not appear to be represented in any of the ancient rolls of arms by name, but perhaps some of the ancient pots, q.v., were represented like pitchers. The term flagon also occurs(fr. flacon probably answers to the same).
Azure, on a chief or between two ewers[or beakers] in chief, and a three-legged pot with two handles in base, of the second three roses gules seeded gold, barbed vert–Company of BRAZIERS, incorporated temp. HEN. VI. Azure, a laver-pot between two taper candlesticks or–FOUNDERS’ Company[arms originally granted, 1590]. Gules, on a fesse wavy argent, between three pitchers double eared or, as many bees volant proper–CONDUITT, Westminster[granted 1717]. Sable, on a chevron ermine between three jugs argent, as many martlets of the first–WHITE. Argent, three ewers gules–BLAND. Argent, three water-pots covered gules within a bordure sable bezanty–MONBOUCHER. Gules, three pitchers argent–CONDUIT. Argent, a bend engrailed between six ewers sable–WOOD. Argent, on a bend sable three ewers of the first–LEWER. Sable, three ewers argent–BUTLER; also TOTEWHILL, Cornwall. Sable, on a chevron ermine between three flagons, the two in chief with spouts argent, as many martlets gules–WHITE, Kent.
The old French pichier, the modern pitcher, is found as early as the roll of the Siege of Carlaverock, but it appears to be a solitary example, and the name of the bearer seems rather to suggest its connection with the water bouget.
Le bon Bertram de MONTBOUCHIER, En son escu de argent luisant De goules, furent trois pichier En le ourle noire le besant. Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Per bend gules and azure, a pitcher in bend or; on a chief of the last a beast’s head erased between two mullets sable–WHEELER[Harl. MS., 1404; but probably meant for the arms of Wheeler, which are a fish-wheel in bend or, on a chief of the last a wolf’s head erased sable between two ogresses]. Azure, a fesse ermine between three pitchers or–PITCHARD, co. Brecknock.
Ewers are borne by families of TODWELL, REGINALD, &c. Expanded, or expansed, i.q. displayed. Some writers would confine the term displayed to birds of prey, and apply that of expanded to tame fowls. Extendant: also used in the sense of displayed, and likewise to signify that some charge generally found curved(as a serpent), is borne straight. Eye: The human eye is sometimes represented in arms; the eyes of animals are rarely referred to, and only when they are of a different tincture.
Vert, on a canton argent, an eye proper–WALKER, Barbadoes. Argent, an oak-tree growing out of a mount in base vert; in chief a human eye eradiated proper, all within a bordure gules–WATT, Edinburgh. Barry of six azure and argent, on a chief of the second three eyes gules–DELAHAY, Ireland. Barry of six or and sable, on a pale gules an eye argent weeping and dropping or–DODGE, Suffolk. Azure, a chevron or between three eyes argent–LEGIER. Argent, three cows passant sable, eyes gules, collared or–Benedictine Alien Priory at COWICK.
Eyrant, or Ayrant: applied to eagles and other birds, as if sitting on their nests. Eyry: the nest of a bird of prey.